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Friends of Magude (2/95)

District Administration building, Magude town, 1995.

Nkanyi tree, Piet Van Wyk, Field Guide to the Trees of the Kruger National Park (Cape Town: Struik, 1994), 138.


Mementos (12/96)

Switsundzuxo.


Binding Memories (12/03)

Women walking from Antioka.

Xikukutsu piles at border.


Rural Women in Southern Mozambique

Illustration by southern Mozambican artist Malangatana Ngwenya., AWEPA 1994.


Meeting Women and History in Magude

Ruti, Aida and the author.

Antioka church (formerly Swiss Mission, now Igrega Presbiteriano de Moçambique), 1995.

Former missionary residence (uninhabited), Antioka, 1995.

Juliana Kwinika, John Collins, and Rosalina Malungana. Antioka, 1995.

Juliana's home, with another damaged hut, left. Antioka, 1995

Our residence and car, with Rosalina's home in the background, right. Antioka, 1995.

Albertina Ubisse and women on sangu.

Ruti Nkuna, outside her home in Facazisse, 1996.

Children sweeping the yard of the Antioka "school" at recess, 1995.

Aida Dzamba, outside Ruti's home in Facazisse, 1996.

Ruti Nkuna and Aida Dzamba, in Facazisse, 1996.

Ruti and Aida, watching a spirit possession ceremony in Facazisse, 1996.

Ruti, Aida, and the author in Magude town, 1996.

Author carrying water from the Nkomati River, 1995.

Learning to winnow pounded peanuts, with Susanna Ntimba, in Facazisse, 1995.

Adelaida Muzimba and Ernesto Muhlanga in Xitezeni, Phadjane, 1996.

View from Antioka after the first rains, December 1995.

View from Antioka after torrential rains caused the Nkomati River to burst its banks, February 1996.

Another view from Antioka of flooded lands along the Nkomati, February 1996.

After the rains stopped, late February 1996.

Flooded fields along banks of Nkomati River, February 1996.

Woman overlooking flooded fields below Antioka, February 1996.

Journal 2 (23 June 1995), page 92.

Interview log 1 (4 November 1995), entry 081.

Interview notes 2 (21 December 1995), 119-33.

Field notes 5 (22-23 December 1995), 98-99.

Field sketchbook (29 December 1995), 95-96.


Relations of Remembrance

Author and Madelena Ubisse.


Mapping Magude

District Administration building, Magude town, 1995.

Pottery on display at the Masorini late-Iron Age site, Kruger National Park (east of Phalaborwa Gate), South Africa, 1995.

Illustration from a typical Portuguese travel account of the late nineteenth century, A. A. Caldas Xavier, "Reconhecimento do Limpopo: Os territórios ao Sul do Save e os Vatuas," BSGL 13 (1894): facing 134.

Sketch, António Carlos Aguado Leotte, "O posto de Magude: Campanha de Lourenço Marques," Revista de Engenheria Militar 3, no. 12 (1898): 531-32.

Preliminary sketch of a proposed irrigation system for the lower Nkomati River, 1898, Alexandre Augusto Terry, "Relatório dos itinerários de Magude ao Sabíe e do Sabíe a Incomati," 1898. AHM, Governo do Distrito de Lourenço Marques, Fundo do Século XIX: Sala 8, Caixa 130, estante Bd-2-1878-1893.

Mozambican migrant workers, Rachel Waterhouse, Mozambique: Rising from the Ashes (Oxford: Oxfam, 1996), 7.

President Chissano at Phadjane.

Abandoned workers' residences at Citrinos de Timanguene.

Abandoned primary school at Timanguene, 1996.

Tiled sign at the Quinta da Boa Esperança.

Graffiti and the remains of the ranch house and orchard at Quinta da Boa Esperança, Motaze, 1996.

Human skull, Quinta da Boa Esperança, Motaze, 1996.

Abandoned health post (foreground) and maternity clinic, Mapulanguene sede, 1996.

Children sweeping the grounds outside the former infirmary at Antioka, 1995.

Huts built for the Antioka maternity center, 1995.

Ruins of the administrative building, Mapulanguene sede, 1995.

Abandoned and gunfire-pocked shop along the main road into Mapulanguene sede, 1995.

Battle-scarred shell of a commercial building outside Mapulanguene sede, 1995.

Frelimo tank burned by Renamo forces.

Author with Caissene Mundlovu (2nd from right) and others at N'wanetsi River, Mapulanguene.

Caissene Mundlovu and Elmone Mundlovu, in Mapulanguene, 1995.

Elmone Mundlovu showing Aida Dzamba and author how women "long ago" gathered salt from rocks along the N'wanetsi River, near the South African border, Mapulanguene, 1995.

Mundlovu ancestral burial site in Mapulanguene, containing human bones and hand-forged "Vecha" iron hoes, 1995.


Locating a Woman's Life: Naming the Past in a "Scattered" Land

Thonga women, early 1900s, Henri A. Junod, Life of a South African Tribe (Neuchatel: Imprimerie Attinger Frères, 1912), 1:193.

Matendeni hut.

Hut estacas, Mapulanguene.

Footpath in field, Tlhongana.

Marhumbini, Tlhongana.

Man at shop, Mapulanguene.

Abandoned home, Phadjane.

Abandoned cantina, Facazisse.

Maguiguana monument, Mapulanguene, 1995.

Women at vukanyi party.


Based on a True Story: Women's Life-Storytelling as Memory, Oral Tradition, and History

Rosalina Malungana at her new hut, Facazisse.

Rosalina Malungana.

Rosalina and Nestacia.

Albertina Tiwana.

Albertina Tiwana.

Valentina Chauke.

"Thonga kraal", A. M. Duggan-Cronin, The Bantu Tribes of South Africa: Reproductions of Photographic Studies (Cambridge, U.K.: Deighton, Bell, 1935), vol. 4, Henri P. Junod, The Vathonga (The Thonga-Shangaan People), plate 24.


"Everyone Has Her Own Hand": Pottery as Autographed Memory

Mbita sitting in xirhengele with nhlampfurha leaves.

Aida, Laurinda, Julia, Julia's son & daughter.

Masorini archaeological museum (Kruger Park).

Drawings of first-millenium pottery from southern Mozambique & northeastern Transvaal, João Morais and Teresa Cruz e Silva, "A Tentative Construction of a Model: Modern Traditional Pottery from the Coastal Plain—Gaza province," in Prehistoric Research in Moçambique: The Earlier Prehistoric Research in "Portuguese East Africa," the Present Projects, Investigation Plans and Proposals, ed. J. M. Morais (Maputo, 1976); Menno Klapwijk, "A Preliminary Report on Pottery from the North-Eastern Transvaal, South Africa," South African Archaeological Bulletin 29 (1974): 19-23.

Drawings of Massingir Iron Age pottery styles, Ricardo T. Duarte, "Three Iron Age Sites in Massingir Area, Gaza Province, Moçambique, and Their Importance in the Southern Moçambique Bantu Settlement," in Iron Age Research in Mozambique, ed. João Morais et al (Maputo: Instituto de Investigação Científica de Moçambique, 1976), facing 18.

Sketch of pots at man's burial hut, Henri A. Junod, Life of a South African Tribe (Neuchatel: Imprimerie Attinger Frères, 1912), 1:141.

Homemade ornaments and containers, Henri A. Junod, Life of a South African Tribe (Neuchatel: Imprimerie Attinger Frères, 1912), 1:101.

Missão São Jerónimo pottery, Nunes de Oliveira, "Arte gentílica em Moçambique," Moçambique—Documentário Trimestral 3 (1935): 57.

Woman at cooking fire, A. M. Duggan-Cronin, The Bantu Tribes of South Africa: Reproductions of Photographic Studies (Cambridge, U.K.: Deighton, Bell, 1935), vol. 4, Henri P. Junod, The Vathonga (The Thonga-Shangaan People), plate 23.

Armando Khosa, working on a khuwana, São Jerónimo Mission, Magude town, 1995.

A young apprentice working on a flower pot, São Jerónimo Mission, Magude town, 1995.

A mbita, São Jerónimo Mission, Magude town, 1995.

Clay grinding bowls (sing. xihiso) drying. São Jerónimo Mission, Magude town, 1995.

A factory-made water pitcher, aluminum mug, handmade khuwana, and factory-made xihiso, upside-down, on the grave of Anina Tivane, mother of Rosalina Malungana, Facazisse, 1995.

Two makhuwana, A. C. Lawton, "Bantu Pottery of Southern Africa," Annals of the South African Museum 49, no. 1 (1967): 380, fig. 52.

Drawings of pottery by Tamara Khosa & Fohleya Nhlongo.

Julia Chambale and daughter decorating ximbitana.

Drawings of Munen'wasse Ngonyama's pottery.

Drawings of Elena Khosa's pottery.

Drawings of Nkotassane Xixava's & Julia Chambale's pottery.

Julia Chambale kneading clay, 1995.

Laurinda Ubisse coiling clay to make a djomela, 1995.

Laurinda Ubisse working on a djomela, 1995.

Julia Chambale putting finishing touches on a djomela, 1995.

Julia Chambale using a rikatla (mussel shell) to trim the top of a nkambana, 1995.

Julia Chambale putting finishing touches on a mbita, 1995.

Julia Chambale rubbing black paint (made from battery) onto a nkambana while her daughter prepares more for her, 1995.

Julia Chambale's son carrying a kenya (large bundle of thatch) for the fire to "cook" the pots, 1995.

Rosalina Malungana at her new hut, Facazisse.


Boundaries of Beauty: Tattooing and Changing Landscapes of Women's Community

Drawing, William M. White, Journal of a Voyage Performed in the Lion Extra Indiaman, from Madras to Colombo and Da Lagoa Bay . . . in the Year 1798: With Some Account of the Manners and Customs of the Inhabitants of Da Lagoa Bay and a Vocabulary of the Language (London: John Stockdale, 1800), 27.

Thonga girl, A. M. Duggan-Cronin, The Bantu Tribes of South Africa: Reproductions of Photographic Studies (Cambridge, U.K.: Deighton, 1935), vol. 4, Henri P. Junod, The Vathonga (The Thonga-Shangaan People), plate 32.

Photograph of Lydenburg Head, Iziko Museums of Cape Town, 2001 (http://www.museums.org.za/sam/).

Sketch of two men and a woman from Delagoa Bay, William M. White, Journal of a Voyage Performed in the Lion Extra Indiaman, from Madras to Colombo and Da Lagoa Bay . . . in the Year 1798: With Some Account of the Manners and Customs of the Inhabitants of Da Lagoa Bay and a Vocabulary of the Language (London: John Stockdale, 1800), 27.

Photographs of tattooed young women, Henri A. Junod, The Life of a South African Tribe (Neuchatel: Imprimerie Attinger Frères, 1912; New York: University Books, 1962), 1:181.

"Body marking of a Portuguese East African woman", E. Dora Earthy, "On the Significance of the Body Markings of Some Natives of Portuguese East Africa," South African Journal of Science 21 (1924): 586.

Sketch of tattoo instruments, facial tattoos, E. Dora Earthy, Valenge Women: The Social and Economic Life of the Valenge Women of Portuguese East Africa (London: Oxford University Press, 1933), 102..

A makandu design.

A tattoo representing the trademark of Blue Cross-brand condensed milk.

Sample nxurhana and xilova tattoo designs.

Various incised tattoo designs.

Swibayana facial tattoos.

Incised xikomu (hoe) designs.

Various needle-pierced tinhlanga designs.

Sample needle-pierced tinhlanga, including name of male mutlhaveli.

Drawing of Albertina Tiwana's tattoos, showing location on her body.

"Tattooed women of the Maputju clan", Henri A. Junod, Life of a South African Tribe (Neuchatel: Imprimerie Attinger Frères, 1912), 1:182.


"I'll Bury You in the Border!": Women's Struggles Over Land, Memory, and Community in Postwar Facazisse

Hut surrounded by crops, Facazisse.

Women at Ngungwe River.

Women riding in truck to Ngungwe.

View of the landscape between Nhiuana (Phadjane) and Ngungwe, October 1995.

View of the landscape between Nhiuana (Phadjane) and Ngungwe, October 1995.

View of the landscape between Nhiuana (Phadjane) and Ngungwe, October 1995.

View of the landscape between Nhiuana (Phadjane) and Ngungwe, October 1995.

View of the landscape between Nhiuana (Phadjane) and Ngungwe, October 1995.

Bombed Frelimo tank and human skeletal remains at Ngungwe, 1995.

Bombed Frelimo tank and human skeletal remains at Ngungwe, 1995.

Photograph of women farmers, Henri A. Junod, Life of a South African Tribe (Neuchatel: Imprimerie Attinger Frères, 1912), 2:21.

Soils of Magude district.

Example of mindzelekana dividing women's fields, Facazisse, 1995.

Example of mindzelekana dividing women's fields, Facazisse, 1995.

Example of mindzelekana dividing women's fields, Facazisse, 1995.

Masungukati shaming ceremony (kurhuketela), Ngungwe, December 1995.

Masungukati shaming ceremony (kurhuketela), Ngungwe, December 1995.

Masungukati shaming ceremony (kurhuketela), Ngungwe, December 1995.

Masungukati shaming ceremony (kurhuketela), Ngungwe, December 1995.

Masungukati shaming ceremony (kurhuketela), Ngungwe, December 1995.

Masungukati shaming ceremony (kurhuketela), Ngungwe, December 1995.

Masungukati shaming ceremony (kurhuketela), Ngungwe, December 1995.

Masungukati shaming ceremony (kurhuketela), Ngungwe, December 1995.

Masungukati shaming ceremony (kurhuketela), Ngungwe, December 1995.

Facazisse land concessions.

Titled land concessions along the Nkomati River near Magude town in 1952.

Aida and Talita in field.

Albertina Ubisse.

Fence post pulled from ground, Albertina Tiwana.

Drawing of Albertina Tiwana's disputed field.

Disputed boundary of Albertina Tiwana's field, 1996.

Partially built hut and granary.


 

 

Binding Memories: Women as Makers and Tellers of History in Magude, Mozambique