Secretary of State Cordell Hull and Sumner Welles. Dean Acheson described the state department as a "house divided against itself" with Hull's and Welles's loyalists plotting against each other. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, px 91-7.

Chapter 1

School days. Sumner Welles is third from right on the bottom row. Next to Welles is Hall Roosevelt, Eleanor's brother. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, npx 74-70=1054.

Groton Headmaster Endicott Peabody. Students enforced Groton hierarchies by strict hazing rituals and various other torments of which the headmaster approved, believing they contributed to the development of "manly Christian character.". Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.

Picnicking with Friends. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, npx 67-120.

Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes and Sumner Welles. Welles's admired the upright and taciturn Hughes and thought the Secretary a suitable model for emulation. Corbis.

Eleanor Roosevelt and Sumner Welles. Welles's power in Washington was significantly enhanced by his close bond with the First Lady. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.

Eleanor Roosevelt and Sumner Welles. Welles had immense respect for Eleanor's views and the First Lady was one of Welles's staunchest supporters. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.

Sumner Welles and an uncharacteristically subdued FDR at Warm Springs, 1933. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, npx 47-96: 1721.

Chapter 2

Cordell Hull, center, and Walton Moore, to Hull's left. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, npx 60-98a April 1937.

Franklin Roosevelt and William C. Bullitt, a man, as Dean Acheson once remarked, with a "singularly ironic middle name." ACME News Pictures, npx 48-22:3710 (49).

Adolf Berle, an Assistant Secretary of State and close ally of Welles. Of Berle Raymond Moley acidly noted that while he once may have been considered an infant prodigy, he continued to be an infant long after he had ceased to be a prodigy. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, A. Berle [npx 74-20:1544] credit: FDRL, 1933.

Cordell Hull with Norman Davis. Perhaps Davis greatest feat of diplomacy during his long and distinguished career was his ability to maintain good relations with both Welles and Hull. ACME News Pictures, September 15. 1937 [px 56-131 (473)]

Chapter 3

Col. Edward House, chairman of Woodrow Wilson's Inquiry. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.

Welles, Neville Chamberlain, Lord Halifax, Joseph P. Kennedy. From left to right: Lord Halifax, Welles, Neville Chamberlain, Joseph P. Kennedy. Corbis.

Sumner Welles and Herman Goering in Berlin, 1940. Corbis.

Welles, in black tie, placed between Churchill and FDR during a formal dinner at the Atlantic Conference. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, npx 77-138 (2) FDRL.

Roosevelt and Churchill at the Atlantic Conference. Welles, always suspicious of the British Prime Minister, looks on with concern. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.

Chapter 4

Sumner Welles, waving his hat in the midst of a throng at the Rio Conference, January 1942. Corbis, U63467.

Benjamin Cohen, one of the Most Significant Voices in Postwar Planning. Cohen Became a Strong Advocate of a Council of Four or Five Great Powers which would Make Most of the Important Decisions of a new international organization. Capitol and Glogan Photos.

David K. Niles. Works Progress Administration, npx 84-37.

Milo Perkins, a close ally of Vice President Henry Wallace. Office of War Information, npx 66-332 (22).

Myron Taylor, formerly of U.S. Steel, who had served as Roosevelt's envoy to the Vatican. Taylor thought the postwar planners should seek out and promote those foreign leaders with the most potential to be amendable to U.S. interests in the postwar years. G. Felici, 49-164: 198.

Democratic Senator Tom Connally of Texas, the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, would prove to be a valuable link between postwar planning and Capitol Hill. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, npx 67-215(1).

Republican Senator Warren Austin of Vermont provided postwar planning with an important bi-partisan coloration. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, px 59-471(3).

Anthony Eden with Averell Harriman, Yalta, 1945. Signal Corps photo.

Chapter 5

Edouard Herriot with FDR in 1933. Wide World.

In London, de Gaulle chats with Anthony Biddle, while Brendan Bracken lectures the exiled Dutch diplomat Eelco Van Kleffens. The waiter listens in, nonplussed.

Marriage of convenience: de Gaulle, Giraud at Casablanca. The proud, but delusional, parents, FDR and Churchill, look on with momentary satisfaction.

Cordell Hull, Roosevelt, daughter Anna, and Charles de Gaulle. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, npx 61-255.

Welles, Churchill, and Joseph P. Kennedy in London. Welles, unimpressed with Churchill, subsequently cabled Roosevelt that he believed the British statesman had already consumed a large amount of scotch prior to their meeting. Corbis.

"The Generalissimo" Chiang Kai-shek. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library.

FDR and Brazilian strongman Getulio Vargas.

Chapter 6

Roosvelt with Manuel Quezon to his left, as Welles looks on from behind. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, 48:22:3868 (471).

Chiang Kai-shek, Madame Chiang Kai-shek, Nehru. Toland Collection, px81-50(135).

Shah of Iran. U.S. Department of War, npx 49-164:1237.

Chapter 7

Soviet Ambassador Maxim Litvinov and Cordell Hull. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, npx 74-20 (149).

Chapter 8

Welles and Eleanor Roosevelt. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, npx 48-22: 588.

William C. Bullitt ultimately succeeding in destroying Welles but also ended his own career in the process. Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, npxs 56-131 (509).


Sumner Welles with George F. Kennan, the Future Author of the Doctrine of Containment, During Welles's Mission to Europe, 1940.


Sumner Welles, Postwar Planning, and the Quest for a New World Order, 1937-1943