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This book would not have been possible without the support and encouragement of a large cast of characters. John Kent of the London School of Economics, my tutor and friend, read numerous drafts and piloted me through the process of completing the manuscript in a timely fashion and crafting it into a publishable work. John also provided fellowship and good humor during my years in London. My father, General Curtis Hooper O'Sullivan, a witness to many of the events in this book and a historian in his own right, read more versions of the manuscript than was probably good for his physical or mental health but was still able to make valuable suggestions with every reading. Dave Foglesong of Rutgers University has been a generous friend throughout and made many of the most significant contributions, patiently reading several different versions of this project over the years since we first met in his lively and inspiring U.S. foreign policy seminars at Berkeley. Michael Dockrill of Kings College, London offered numerous insightful comments on the manuscript and had confidence in its ultimate potential, as did Geoffrey Warner, of Brasenose College, Oxford. The concept for this book first arose in a seminar at the City University of New York Graduate Center taught by Herbert S. Parmet, who offered frequent critiques of the manuscript as it evolved. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. provided guidance in understanding the wartime Grand Alliance during his seminar on the Cold War, kindly commented on several earlier versions of the work, and was instrumental in assisting me gain access to the papers of Sumner Welles, which were only opened to the public in 1996. Paul Miles of Princeton University has also offered support, advice, and encouragement.


Numerous others have lent their support in innumerable ways, including Anthony Best, Manfred Jonas, Anders Henrikson, Hans Trefousse, Katherine Sibley, Thomas Kessner, Dianne Clemens, Barbara Daniel, Judy Katz, Katinka Matson, Patricia and Obi Al-Ani, Barbara Sutro Ziegler, Brigid O'Sullivan, Ellen Danby, Mary O'Sullivan, Tom Belton, Bob Kirk, Art Lepore, Brenda Kent, Kern Richmond, Al Acena, Rich Castillo, Jerry Fuchs, Nancy Kraus, John Devincenzi, Joe Yull, Elizabeth Williamson, Marlane Spillinger, Carol Berkin, Dzemal Sokolovic, Florian Bieber, Carsten Wieland, Steve Levine, Sherrie Balsillie, Pat Oberg, Nancy Rice, and Joanne Reitano.


A number of institutions and research facilities provided crucial support and assistance along the way. The Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt Institute awarded me the Lubin-Winant Fellowship to assist with the completion of the manuscript, and the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation also provided me with a generous grant that made the completion of the work possible. The Franklin D. Roosevelt Library staff was unstintingly helpful and patient, particularly Gilda Bonono, Lynn Bassanese, Bob Clark, Karen Anson, and Robert Parks, as were the staffs (too large to list individually) and archivists of the National Archives at College Park, Maryland; the British Public Record Office at Kew; and the manuscript division of the Library of Congress. The staff at Columbia University Press, particularly Kate Wittenberg, Sean Costigan, Gordon Dahlquist, and Karen Sabino Desiderio, proved most helpful, as did a number of people with the American Historical Association, especially Pillarisetti Sudhir, Arnita Jones, Deirdre Murphy, and Frances Clark.


Finally, and most importantly, this book would not have been possible without the support, assistance, and encouragement of Maeve, who contributed in every way possible, from research to editing and beyond. This is for her.



Sumner Welles, Postwar Planning, and the Quest for a New World Order, 1937-1943