Note 1: The official announcement of his departure came in late September, but he had effectively left the administration weeks before, and word of his resignation leaked to the Washington press corps. Back.
Note 2: Breckinridge Long diary, August 29, 1943, box 5, the Papers of Breckinridge Long, Library of Congress; Geoffrey C. Ward, ed., Closest Companion (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1995), 244. Back.
Note 3: Athan Theoharis, J. Edgar Hoover, Sex, and Crime: An Historical Antidote (Chicago: Ivan Dee, 1995), 32. Back.
Note 4: Orville H. Bullitt, ed., For the President: Personal and Secret: Correspondence Between Franklin D. Roosevelt and William C. Bullitt (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1972), 511-518; Adolf A. Berle Diary, September 1, 1943, box 215, Adolf A. Berle Papers, FDRL. "Welles first spoke to me about the story," Breckinridge Long recalled in his diary. "That was in the spring of 1942. He said Bullitt had started it and that it was a malicious lie. I assumed it was. Bullitt is a person without honor, in my eyes. I have known him a long, long time and know him well but I have never had any confidence in him. And he wanted Welles's position. So I accepted Welles's statement at face value. Even without Bullitt's instigation of the story I would still have accepted Welles's statement." Breckinridge Long diary, August 29, 1943, box 5, the Papers of Breckinridge Long, Library of Congress Manuscript Division. Back.
Note 5: Orville H. Bullitt, ed., For the President, 511-518; Will Brownell and Richard Billings, So Close to Greatness: A Biography of William C. Bullitt (New York: Macmillan, 1987), 297; James Reston, Deadline: A Memoir (New York: Random House, 1991), 103. That Krock did not use the material is somewhat surprising, as he had devoted much of his career to using the pages of the New York Times to promote friends such as Hull and Joseph P. Kennedy. Lord Halifax noted that, "Krock, who veers between the extremes of vindictive spite and sycophantic flattery, has for some months held up Mr. Hull as a paragon of virtue gratuitously frustrated by the greatly inferior persons among whom it is his bad fortune to be compelled to function." See FO 371/34160 minute by Halifax, August 7, 1943, PRO. Back.
Note 6: Brownell and Billings, So Close to Greatness, 297; Reston, Deadline, 103. Back.
Note 7: Breckinridge Long diary, August 29, 1943, box 5, the Papers of Breckinridge Long, Library of Congress. Back.
Note 8: Cordell Hull, The Memoirs of Cordell Hull, vol. 2 (New York: Macmillan, 1948), 1229-1231; Welles to Hull, September 21, 1943, PSF 77, FDRL; Welles to Roosevelt, August 16, 1943, PSF 77, FDRL. Back.
Note 9: See "Resignation of Sumner Welles," Official File 20, Department of State, box 16, FDR Papers, FDRL. Back.
Note 10: FO 371/34161, Campbell to Foreign Office, September 18, 1943, PRO; "FDR and the Conservative Trend," New Republic, August 23, 1943; FO 371/34161, "Situation in the United States," by Campbell, September 5, 1943, PRO. Back.
Note 11: The Nation, September 13, 1943. Back.
Note 12: Welles to Roosevelt, August 16, 1943, PSF 77, FDRL; New York Times, August 25, 1943; "Resignation of Sumner Welles and appointment of Edward R. Stettinius to Under Secretary of State," White House Press Release, September 25, 1943, Documents on American Foreign Relations, vol. VI (Boston: World Peace Foundation) 55; Department of State Bulletin, IV, 208; "Resignation of Sumner Welles," OF 20, Department of State, box 16, FDRL; The Nation, September 13, 1943. Back.
Note 13: St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 30, 1943; New York Post, August 25, 1943 Back.
Note 14: Oliver Pilat, Drew Pearson: An Unauthorized Biography (New York: Harper's Magazine Press, 1973),175-176. Back.
Note 15: Drew Pearson: An Unauthorized Biography, 206; Arthur Krock, Memoirs: Sixty Years on the Firing Line (New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1968), 206; Drew Pearson: An Unauthorized Biography, 175-176; Donald F. Drummond, "Cordell Hull," in An Uncertain Tradition: American Secretaries of State in the Twentieth Century edited by Norman Graebner (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1961), 615-617. Back.
Note 16: New York Post, August 25, 1943; PM, August 27, 1943; St. Louis Post-Dispatch, August 30, 1943; Drummond, "Cordell Hull," 615-617; Rexford G. Tugwell, The Democratic Roosevelt: A Biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1957), 622-623. Back.
Note 17: "FDR and the Conservative Trend," New Republic, August 23, 1943; FO 371 34161, "Situation in the United States," by Campbell, September 5, 1943. Writing to his friend Jefferson Caffery, the U.S. Ambassador to Brazil, Welles placed the blame for his resignation on Hull's angry response to Welles's actions at the January 1942 Rio Conference. "To you," Welles wrote to Caffery, "I do not have to give any explanation, particularly in view of our association a year and a half ago. I need merely add that the past few months have been a very bitter time for me." Welles to Caffery, August 22, 1943, Welles papers, box 91, resignation letters, FDRL. Back.
Note 18: Eden noted that "Bullitt is poisonous and his record in France in 1940 discreditable." FO 371 34161, Campbell to F.O. August 30, 1943. Back.
Note 19: Berle Diary, September 1, 1943, box 215, Adolf A. Berle Papers, FDRL; Ted Morgan, FDR: A Biography (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985), 677-685. Back.
Note 20: Dean Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years in the State Department (New York: W. W. Norton, 1969), 12; Newsweek, September 6, 1943. Back.
Note 21: Berle Diary, September 1, 1943, box 215, FDRL; Drew Pearson to Welles, November 29, 1943, Welles papers, box 147, FDRL. Back.
Note 22: FO 371/34161, Campbell to Foreign Office, September 5, 1943. Back.
Note 23: Roosevelt to Stalin, September 4, 1943, FRUS, vol. I, 1943, 518-519; Welles to Roosevelt, September 21, 1943, PSF 77, FDRL Back.
Note 24: Berle Diary, September 1, 1943, Berle Papers, box 215, FDRL. Back.
Note 25: Henry Wallace, The Price of Vision: The Diary of Henry A. Wallace, 1942-1946, ed. John Morton Blum (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1973), 237-241; FO 371/34161, minute by Campbell, August 24, 1943. Back.
Note 26: "Resignation of Sumner Welles," Official File 20, Department of State, box 16, FDRL; Welles to Roosevelt, September 21, 1943, PSF 77, FDRL; Wallace, The Price of Vision, 240; Eden's private secretary, Oliver Harvey, noted: "Sumner Welles is on such bad terms with Hull (everywhere we now come across Hull's deadening influence) that he won't in all probability be allowed to undertake such a mission. There is no other American who has the clear head or the experience to do it so well." Oliver Harvey, August 24. Back.
Note 27: FO 371/34161 "Situation in the U.S." by Campbell, September 5, 1943, PRO. Back.
Note 28: "Columnist Welles," Newsweek, December 13, 1943; speech by Welles, "Safeguarding Our Interests," Twenty-fifth anniversary of the Foreign Policy Association, in Vital Speeches of the Day, November 1, 1943. Back.
Note 29: Roosevelt to Welles, October 15, 1943, PSF 77, FDRL; Roosevelt to Welles, not dated, 1943, PPF 2961, FDRL; Sumner Welles, Where Are We Heading? (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1946), 27-30; W. A. Swanberg, Luce and His Empire (New York: Scribners, 1972), 218-219. Back.
Note 30: Welles, Where Are We Heading?, 27-30; Roosevelt to Welles, January 4, 1944, PPF 2961, FDRL. Back.
Note 31: Robert Divine, Second Chance: The Triumph of Internationalism in America During World War II (New York: Atheneum, 1971), 178-181; Sumner Welles, The Time For Decision (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1944), 414. His publishers sought to boost sales of the book by proclaiming that he possessed inside information about the administration's postwar plans. "Only a handful of men in the world have had access to the information on which this book is based," the book's dust jacket proclaimed. Back.
Note 32: Welles, The Time For Decision, 55, 374-378, 413-14. In this detailed 400-page account of American foreign policy over the course of the last decade, only once did Welles mention Cordell Hull by name. Back.
Note 33: Welles, "What Russia Wants," Readers Digest, November 1944. Back.
Note 34: Welles, The Time For Decision, 306, 334-35. Back.
Note 35: The New Republic, July 31, 1944; Welles to Roosevelt, June 2, 1944, PSF 77, FDRL. Back.
Note 36: Sumner Welles, "The Outlook for a Democratic World Order," Newton D. Baker Lecture, November 20, 1944, Council on World Affairs publication. Back.
Note 37: For letters and telegrams to White House regarding Sumner Welles, see Official File 470, FDRL. Back.
Note 38: Wallace, The Price of Vision, 397-400; Hull, Memoirs, 1716-1719; Joseph P. Lash, Eleanor and Franklin: The Story of Their Relationship, Based on Eleanor Roosevelt's Private Papers (New York: Norton, 1971), 713-715. Back.
Note 39: See Official File 470, "Sumner Welles," FDRL; President's Personal File 2961, FDRL; "Herald Tribune Broadcasts, 1945," box 199, folder 10, Welles papers, FDRL; Broadcast speech by Sumner Welles, May 22, 1945, Appendix to the Congressional Record, 1945, A2507-A2508, May 25, 1945. Back.
Note 40: Swanberg, Luce and His Empire, 215-219. Back.
Note 41: Welles, Seven Decisions, xi. Back.
Note 42: Welles to Rosenman, June 17, 1949, Welles papers, box 140, FDRL. Back.
Note 43: A. M. Sperber, Murrow: His Life and Times (New York: Freundlich Books, 1986), 317-318; David Caute, The Great Fear: The Anti-Communist Purge Under Truman and Eisenhower (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978), 567. Back.
Note 44: Welles to Guachalla, January 13, 1949, box 138, Welles papers, FDRL. Back.
Note 45: Philadelphia Inquirer, January 30, 1949. Back.
Note 46: Benjamin Welles, Sumner Welles: FDR's Global Strategist (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1997), 365-366. Back.
Note 47: Jay Franklin column, January 4, 1949, Welles papers, box 259, scrapbook January 1949-November 1950. Back.
Note 48: Washington Post, January 1, 1949. Back.
Note 49: The Nation, January 8, 1949. Back.
Note 50: Irwin F. Gellman, Secret Affairs: Franklin Roosevelt, Cordell Hull, and Sumner Welles (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995), 392. Back.
Note 51: Welles to Welch, November 17, 1949, box 140, Welles papers, FDRL; Welles to Weisbach, October 14, 1949, box 140, Welles papers, FDRL. Back.
Note 52: Drew Pearson, Diaries 1949-1959, edited by Tyler Abell (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1974), 76. Back.
Note 53: Morgan, FDR, 685. Back.
Note 54: Benjamin Welles, Sumner Welles: FDR's Global Strategist, 373. Back.
Note 55: Welles married Harriette Post, a childhood friend who was the daughter of a founder of the New York Stock Exchange. Back.
Note 56: New York Times, September 25, 1961; John F. Kennedy to Harriette Welles, September 25, 1961, box 22, Welles papers, FDRL; Winston S. Churchill to Harriette Welles, September 26, 1961, box 22, Welles papers, FDRL. Back.
Sumner Welles, Postwar Planning, and the Quest for a New World Order, 1937-1943