Email this citation



Unpublished Primary Sources

Public Record Office, Kew

Cavan, Frederick, Earl of, Papers, WO79/66

Edmonds, Sir James, correspondence with as compiler of History of the Great War Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence: Military Operations France and Belgium.

CAB 45/116
CAB 45/118
CAB 45/122
CAB 45/132-4
CAB 45/136-8
CAB 45/141
CAB 45/183
CAB 45/185-6
CAB 45/188
CAB 45/191
CAB 45/195-9

Haig of Bemersyde, Field-Marshal Earl, Diary, WO256/1-38

Munitions, Ministry of, Papers:

MUN 4/2222: "Guns & Howitzers required for Spring (1917) Offensive," January 1917
MUN 4/2539: Gun and shell production programs, August 1915-July 1916
MUN 4/2827: Requirements for fuses, September 1916-July 1918
MUN 4/2877: Increased smoke effect in HE shells, April 1916-June 1917
MUN 4/3377: AP shells for use against concrete defenses, April-August 1917
MUN 5/123/1000/8: correspondence with GHQ on gun and shell requirements, July 1915
MUN 5/182/1300/100: letter to WO from GHQ, 8 September 1918, on ammunition requirements for 1919
MUN 5/182/1300/106: ammunition requirements for the offensive, 23 February 1916
MUN 7/448: Estimates of supply and requirements for ammunition, January-February 1916

Murray, General Sir Archibald, Papers, WO 79/62-3

Ordnance Board, Papers:

SUPP 6/169: Annual Report of the President of the Ordnance Board, 1914
SUPP 6/170: Annual Report of the President of the Ordnance Board, 1915

Smith-Dorrien, General Sir Horace, Diary 1914-15, CAB 45/206.

von Donop, Major-General Sir Stanley, Papers, WO 79-81

War Diaries

WO95/1-23: General Staff, GHQ
WO95/58-60: Director of Ordnance Services, GHQ
WO95/86: No. 1 HARG
WO95/87-8: No. 2 HARG
WO95/89: Nos. 3-6 HARGs
WO95/154-80: 1st Army General Staff
WO95/268-78: 2nd Army General Staff
WO95/359-75: 3rd Army General Staff
WO95/431-40: 4th Army General Staff
WO95/518-22: 5th Army General Staff
WO95/619: I Corps CRA
WO95/620: I Corps CHA
WO95/630: II Corps GS
WO95/651-3: II Corps CRA
WO95/654-7: II Corps CHA
WO95/668: III Corps GS
WO95/689-94: III Corps CRA; no CHA papers
WO95/728-30: IV Corps CRA
WO95/731-3: IV Corps CHA
WO95/745: V Corps GS
WO95/756: V Corps CRA
WO95/757: V Corps CHA
WO95/782-3: VI Corps CRA
WO95/784-9: VI Corps CHA
WO95/811-2: VII Corps CRA
WO95/813: VII Corps CHA
WO95/824: VIII Corps CRA
WO95/825: VIII Corps CHA
WO95/841: IX Corps CRA
WO95/842: IX Corps CHA
WO95/862-5: X Corps CRA
WO95/866-7: X Corps CHA
WO95/888: XI Corps CRA and CHA
WO95/901-2: XIII Corps CRA; no CHA papers
WO95/915: XIV Corps CRA
WO95/916-7: XIV Corps CHA
WO95/925: XV Corps CRA
WO95/926-7: XV Corps CHA
WO95/942-3: XVII Corps CRA
WO95/944: XVII Corps CHA
WO95/955: XVIII Corps CRA and CHA
WO95/967: XIX Corps CRA
WO95/968: XIX Corps CHA
WO95/975: XXII Corps CHA; no CRA papers
WO95/993-5: I ANZAC CHA
WO95/1034: II ANZAC CHA; no CRA papers
WO95/1059: Canadian Corps CRA
WO95/1060: Canadian Corps CHA
WO95/1239: 1st Division CRA
WO95/1376: 3rd Division GS
WO95/1390: 3rd Division CRA
WO95/1510: 5th Division GS
WO95/1521: 5th Division CRA
WO95/1581: 6th Division GS
WO95/1588: 6th Division CRA
WO95/1683-4: 8th Division CRA
WO95/1746-7: 9th Division CRA
WO95/1881: 14th Division CRA
WO95/1919: 15th Division CRA
WO95/3934: Meerut Division CRA
WO95/2620-21: 41st Division CRA

War Office Papers:

WO 32/5150: Supply of heavy artillery and ammunition to the Expeditionary Force, 1914
WO 32/5151: Report of General Hickman's Committee relating to Organization necessary for siege operations and correspondence, September-December 1914
WO 32/5152: Supply of artillery ammunition, 1914-15
WO 32/5155: Correspondence from Sir John French on artillery and ammunition
WO 33/701: Report of the Committee on Siege Artillery, December 1914
WO 33/721: "Tactical Notes" by GS at GHQ, August 1915
WO 33/723: "Notes on close shooting by guns and howitzers, registration of targets and calibration," August 1915
WO 33/756: "Notes on Artillery," June 1916
WO 33/770: "The Employment of German Heavy Artillery in Counter-Battery, Demolition and Barrage Fire During the Battle of Verdun," GQG June 1916, GHQ August 1916
WO 106/49: "Mobilisation Appointments Part I, Expeditionary Force," 1 April 1914
WO 106/359: Organization of GHQ
WO 106/388B: "Indian Corps at Neuve Chapelle," GS of India, Simla, 11 June 1915
WO 106/399: Canadian Corps Artillery Instruction for Vimy Ridge
WO 158/17-20: GHQ General Staff notes on operations
WO 158/36: 2nd Army plans for attack at Ypres, January 1917
WO 158/40: Scheme for attack on Aubers Ridge, 5 February 1917
WO 158/181-95: 1st Army operations
WO 158/199: 1st Army plan for attack on Vimy Ridge
WO 158/200: 2nd Army plans
WO 158/202-18: 2nd Army operations
WO 158/220-31: 3rd Army operations
WO 158/233-44: 4th Army operations
WO 158/245-56: 5th Army operations
WO 158/258-9: 1st Army papers on Neuve Chapelle
WO 158/260: 1st Army arrangements of 8 May 1915
WO 158/274-87: 2nd Army artillery reports
WO 158/302-8: 2nd Army reports on operations at Messines Ridge
WO 158/309-10: 2nd Army defenses, April-September 1918
WO 158/311: 3rd Army—GHQ correspondence, April 1917-November 1918
WO 158/312: 3rd Army artillery instructions, 2 May 1917
WO 158/316: 3rd Army operations narrative and lessons drawn from Cambrai
WO 158/321: 4th Army preparations for the Somme
WO 158/327-31: 4th Army operations on the Somme
WO 95/341: 5th Army plans for winter 1916-17
WO 158/343: 5th Army artillery in the March 1918 retreat
WO 158/344: 5th Army lessons learned from 1916
WO 158/352: III Corps artillery preparations for Cambrai
WO 158/373: III Corps artillery operations, March-April 1918
WO 158/374: IV Corps report on operation at Neuve Chapelle
WO 158/379: IV Corps artillery operations at Cambrai
WO 158/410: VIII Corps GS plans for 1 July 1916
WO 158/413: IX Corps artillery plans for Messines Ridge
WO 158/419: XIV Corps operations in late September 1916
WO 158/424: Canadian Corps operations at Vimy Ridge
WO 158/855: "Co-operation of Tanks with other Arms," late 1918
WO 159/15: Field-Marshal Earl Kitchener of Khartoum Papers, Correspondence of Major-General S. B. von Donop (Master General of the Ordnance) with officers of the BEF, November-December 1914

Churchill College, Cambridge

Rawlinson of Trent, Field-Marshal Baron, Diaries

House of Lords Record Office

Lloyd-George of Cardiff, David Earl, Papers

Imperial War Museum

Angus, Colonel E. G., Papers

Anon. but E. L. W., "Recollections of the 160th Brigade RFA on the Western Front"

Archibald, Major-General S. C. M., Papers

Armstrong, T. H. W., Sound Record 9758

Ashley, J., Sound Record 6831

Bailey, Major V. H., Papers

Behrend, A. F., Sound Record 4017

Boraston, Colonel J. H., Papers

Butler, Lieutenant-General Sir Richard, Papers

Central Distribution Section (later Stationery Services) pamphlets collection:

CDS 2 "Notes from the Front," December 1914
CDS 3 "Notes from the Front Part II," May 1915
CDS 4 "Notes from the Front Part III and Further Notes on Field Defences," February 1915
SS 23 "Preliminary Deductions, for Instruction, from Recent Engagements, translated from the French," June 1915 but printed November 1915
CDS 24 "Object and Conditions of Combined Offensive Action (translated from the French)," June 1915.
CDS 38 "Fire by Selected Batteries," July 1915
CDS 50 "Tactical Notes," 31 July 1915
CDS 53 "Notes from the Front, Part IV," May 1915
CDS 92 "Notes on Artillery Observation from Kite Balloons," November 1915
CDS 93 "Report on Experimental Firing with 18pr Shrapnel and H.E. at Calais," November 1915
CDS 98/1 "Artillery Notes No. 1: Close Shooting in the Field," January 1916
CDS 98/2 "Artillery Notes No. 2: Field Artillery Ammunition," January 1916
CDS 98/4 "Artillery Notes No. 4: Artillery in Offensive Operations," April 1916
CDS 98/5 "Artillery Notes No. 5: Wire Cutting by Artillery," February 1916 and June 1916
CDS 98/6 "Artillery Notes No. 6: Trench Mortars," March 1916
SS 109 "Training of Divisions for Offensive Action," 8 May 1916
SS 114 "Notes on the Care of Guns During Prolonged Bombardment," March 1917
SS 117 "Summary of the French Instructions for Higher Formations in the Attack," July 1916
SS 119 "Preliminary Notes on the Tactical Lessons of the Recent Operations," July 1916
SS 120 "Provisional Instructions for Co-operation between Aeroplanes and Artillery During an Advance," September 1916
SS 124 "Notes for Artillery Officers on Shoots with Aeroplane Observation," August 1916
SS 130 "Notes on the Employment of 4" Stokes Mortar Bombs," November 1917
SS 131 "Co-Operation of Aircraft with Artillery," December 1916, August 1917, and December 1917
SS 133 no proper title; standardized markings for bombardment maps, 30 November 1916
SS 134 "Instructions on the Use of Lethal and Lachrymatory Shell," December 1916 and March 1918
SS 135 "Instructions for the Training of Divisions for Offensive Action," December 1916 and August 1917
SS 135 "The Training and Employment of Divisions, 1918," January 1918
SS 135 "The Division in Attack," November 1918
SS 139/1 "Artillery Notes No. 1, Close Shooting in the Field, Notes for Infantry Officers," March 1917
SS 139/3 "Artillery Notes No. 3, Counter-Battery Work," March 1917 and February 1918
SS 139/4 "Artillery Notes No. 4, Artillery in Offensive Operations," February 1917
SS 139/7 "Artillery Notes No. 7, Artillery in Defensive Operations," February 1918
SS 149 "Notes on Meteorological Telegrams to the Artillery," March 1917
SS 152 "Instructions for the Training of the British Armies in France (Provisional)," June 1917 and January 1918
SS 156 "Notes on Recent Operations, Compiled by GS Fourth Army," April 1917
SS 157 "Report on the Overseas Artillery School, Salisbury Plain November 1916-March 1917," May 1917
SS 158 "Notes on Recent Operations on the Front of First, Third, Fourth and Fifth Armies," May 1917
SS 168 "Notes on the Employment of Serviceable Guns and Trench Mortars captured from the Enemy," June 1917
SS 170 "Notes on Co-operation between Aircraft and Artillery during recent operations on the Second Army Front," June 1917
SS 172 "Preliminary Notes on Recent Operations on the front of Second Army," July 1917
SS 199 "Co-operation of Sound Ranging Sections and Observation Groups with Artillery (Provisional)," November 1917
SS 199/1 "Ranging with Observation by the Field Survey Company," May 1918
SS 210 "The Division in Defence," May 1918
SS 217 "Instructions for the Employment of 'B.B.' Shell," September 1918
SS 218 "Operations by the Australian Corps against Hamel, Bois de Hamel, and Bois de Vaire, 4th of July 1918," July 1918
SS 552 "Sound Ranging," March 1917
SS 589 "Notes on choosing charges for Howitzers to give the least wear and calculations of percentages of hits probable on a given target," May 1917
SS 592 "Catechism for Heavy and Siege Artillery Subalterns," (October) 1917
SS 592 "Catechism for Artillery Officers," March 1918
SS 599 "Notes on the Technical Reconnaissance of an Artillery Position and the Training of the Headquarters of a Battery," May 1918
SS 614 "Training Instructions for Siege Artillery," July 1918 (but printed March 1918)

Cleeve, S. M., Sound Record 7310

Dawnay, Major-General G. P., Papers

Dennys, C. G., Sound Record 9876

Dove, T. W., Sound Record 4082

Fergusson, Lieutenant Colonel V. M., "The First World War Letters of Lieutenant Colonel V. M. Fergusson"

Fourth Army Operations Papers

French of Ypres, Field-Marshal the Earl, Diary

Hawes, Major-General L. A., Papers

Helps, Lieutenant G., Papers

Hemming, Lieutenant Colonel H. H., Papers

Horne of Stirkoke, Field-Marshal Baron, Papers

James, Brigadier-General E. A., Papers

Laws, M. E. S., Sound Record 490

Lunt, W. T., Sound Record 300

Maxse, Lieutenant-General Sir Ivor, Papers

Page, E. K., Sound Record 717

Parker, G., Sound Record 5047

von Donop, Major-General Sir Stanley, Papers

Liddell Hart Centre, King's College London

Allenby of Megiddo and of Felixstowe, Field-Marshal Viscount, Papers

Cousland, Lieutenant Colonel K. H., Papers

Dill, Field-Marshal Sir John, Papers

Kiggell, Lieutenant-General Sir Launcelot, Papers

MacLeod, Colonel R., Diary

Montgomery-Massingberd, Field-Marshal Sir Archibald, Papers

Robertson, Field-Marshal Sir William, Papers

Smith, Captain R.C., Papers

National Army Museum

Hocking, F(?).C., Document 6410-42

Hunter Weston, Lieutenant-General Sir Aylmer, Papers

Rawlinson of Trent, Field-Marshal Baron, Papers

Royal Air Force Museum

Ferguson, Captain R., Lecture notes for the training of RFC officers in artillery co-operation, collection B3111

Griffin, Lieutenant H., Pilot's Flying Log Book, AC1997/93/95

Royal Artillery Institution

Anderson, Brigadier General A. T., Diary, Military Document 1301

Anstey, Brigadier E. C., Papers, Military Document 1159

Batten, Lieutenant Colonel J., Papers, Military Document 1348

Becke, Major A. F., Papers, Military Document 1115

Bland, Brigadier General W. St.C., Papers, Military Document 1126

Chapman, Major R. H., A Treatise by Major RH Chapman on the calibration of guns and howitzers by the direct measurement of muzzle velocity, as carried out at Shoots of Artillery in France and England (Chapperton Down) 1917 and 1918. Military Document 2021

Gardiner, Lieutenant Colonel H. H., Papers, Military Document 509

Geddes, Lieutenant Colonel J. G., Diaries, Military Document 1135

Gillman, General Sir Webb, Papers, Military Document 1161

Headlam, General Sir John, Papers, Military Document 183

Hussey, Brigadier-General A. H., Diary, Military Document 1175

Rawlins, Brevet Colonel S. W. H., Papers, Military Document 1162. These papers include Rawlins' A History of the Development of the British Artillery in France 1914-1918.

Sandys, Brigadier-General W. B. R., Diary, Military Document 211

Tudor, Major-General Sir Hugh, Diary, Military Document 1167

Uniacke, Lieutenant-General Sir Herbert, Papers, Military Document 1160

Staff College, Camberley

Syndicate Reports

1927/7 "Battle of the Selle"
1929/4 "Operations, Fifth Army, March 1918"
1929/10 "Loos 1915"
1930/7 "Operations, 2nd Army, 1918"
1929/11 "Operations, 4th Army, August 1918 (Special Reference Canadian Corps)"

Published Primary Sources


Anderson, Lieutenant Colonel A. T. The Field Gunners Catechism, 8th edition. London: Gale & Polden, 1916.

Anon. 14th Heavy Battery RGA War Diary and Roll of Honour. London: Robert Scott, 1919.

___. 133 Siege Battery. London, n.d.

___. [May, S. G.] A Battery in France: 178 Siege Battery RGA, 1916-1918. Leeds: Chorley & Pickersgill Ltd, 1919.

___. Diary of Eleventh Siege Battery RGA, now Eleventh Howitzer Battery RGA. Birmingham, n.d.

___. History of 88th Siege Battery Royal Garrison Artillery, December 1 1915 to July 5 1919. no publisher, n.d.

Becke, A. F. Order of Battle of Divisions, Parts 1, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4. London: HMSO, 1935, 1936, 1937, 1938, 1945, 1945. Series completed by F.W. Perry with Parts 5A and 5B. Newport: Ray Westlake, 1992 and 1993.

Berkeley Lowe, Major C. E. Siege Battery 94 during the World War 1914-1918. London: T Werner Laurie, n.d.

Bethell, Colonel (ret.) H. A. Modern Artillery in the Field: A Description of the Artillery of the Field Army, and the principles and methods of its employment. London: Macmillan, 1911.

Bragg, Sir Lawrence; Dowson, A. H.; and Hemming, H. H. Artillery Survey in the First World War. London: Field Survey Association, 1971.

Callwell, Major C. E. Small Wars: Their Principles and Practice. London: HMSO, 1899.

Delap, J. O. K. With a Siege Battery in France: 303 Siege Battery, R.G.A. Woolwich: Royal Artillery Institution, 1919.

Edmonds, Sir James, compiler. History of the Great War Based on Official Documents by Direction of the Historical Section of the Committee of Imperial Defence: Military Operations France and Belgium. In multiple volumes for each year of the war: 1914 vol. 1, 1922; 1914 vol. 2, 1925; 1915 vol. 1, 1927; 1915 vol. 2, 1928; 1916 vol. 1, 1932; 1916 vol. 2, 1938; 1916 appendices volume, 1938; 1917 vol. 1, 1940; 1917 vol. 2, 1948; 1917 vol. 3, 1948; 1918 vol. 1, 1935; 1918 vol. 2, 1937; 1918 vol. 3, 1939; 1918 vol. 4, 1947; 1918 vol. 5, 1947; 1918 appendices volume, 1935. London: Macmillan (except 1917, vols. 2 and 3; 1918, vols. 4 and 5, all London: HMSO).

Fraser-Tytler, Neil. Field Guns in France: With a howitzer battery in the battles of the Somme, Arras, Messines & Passchendaele 1915-1918. Brighton: Tom Donovan, 1995.

General Staff, General Headquarters. Composition of the Headquarters of the Forces in the Field. Various dates during the war, usually quarterly or monthly. Also appeared as Composition of Headquarters British Armies in France.

General Staff. Field Artillery Training 1902 (amended edition 1904). London: HMSO, 1904.

___. Field Artillery Training 1906. London: HMSO, 1906.

___. Field Artillery Training 1908. London: HMSO, 1908.

___. Field Artillery Training (Provisional) 1912. London: HMSO, 1912.

___. Field Artillery Training 1914. London: HMSO, 1914.

___. Field Service Pocket Book 1914. London: HMSO, 1914; reprinted with amendments 1916.

___. Field Service Regulations Part I: Operations, 1909 (amended edition). London: HMSO, 1912.

___. Garrison Artillery Training Volume II (Siege and Movable Armaments) 1906. London: HMSO, 1906.

___. Garrison Artillery Training Volume II (Siege) 1911 (amended edition). London: HMSO, 1914.

___. King's Regulations 1912 (amended to 1st August 1914). London: HMSO, 1914.

___. Memorandum on Army Training, 1908. London: HMSO, 1908.

___. Memorandum on Army Training, 1910. London: HMSO, 1910.

___. Memorandum on Army Training, 1912. London: HMSO, 1912.

___. Memorandum on Army Training during the Collective Training Period, 1913. London: HMSO, 1913.

___. Memorandum on Army Training during the Individual Training Period, 1913-14 London: HMSO, 1914.

Geographical Section, General Staff. Report on Survey on the Western Front, 1914-1918. London: HMSO, 1920.

Grant, D. F. History of 'A' Battery 84th Army Brigade RFA. London: Marshall, n.d, c. 1922.

Historical Sub-Section, General Staff, American Expeditionary Force. A Survey of German Tactics, 1918. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1918.

History of the Ministry of Munitions, vol. 10: The supply of munitions. London: HMSO, 1921.

Hogg, I. V. and Thurston, L. F. British Artillery Weapons & Ammunition 1914-1918. London: Ian Allen, 1972.

Innes, J. R. Flash Spotters and Sound Rangers. London: Allen & Unwin, 1935.

Jackson, L. E. S. The "Why and Wherefore" of Indirect Laying: A Simple Explanation for Officers, N.C.O.'s, and Men. London: Forester Groom, 1915 and 1916.

Macartney-Filgate, J. The History of the 33rd Divisional Artillery in the War 1914-1918. London: Vachers, 1921.

Penstone, L. F. The History of 76 Siege Battery RGA. London: S Tinsley & Co, c1938.

Priestley, R. E. The Signal Service in the European War of 1914 to 1918 (France). Chatham: Royal Engineers Institution, 1921.

Rose, C. A. Three Years in France with the Guns. Kirkaldy: Allen Lithographic, n.d., c. 1919.

Severn, Mark (pseud.). The Gambardier, Giving some account of the Heavy and Siege Artillery in France 1914-1918. London: Ernest Benn, 1930.

Thorburn, A. D. Amateur Gunners. Liverpool: Potter, n.d., c. 1933.

U.S. Army War College, eds. Artillery Operations of the Ninth British Corps at Messines, June, 1917. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, August 1917.

___. The Attack of the British 9th Corps at Messines Ridge. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, August 1917.

Walters, D. J. and Hurle Hobbs, C. R. The History of the 135th Siege Battery RGA. London: Robinson, 1921.

Wiebkin, H. W. A Short History of the 39th (Deptford) Divisional Artillery, 1915-1918. London: E. G. Berryman, 1923.

Williamson Oswald, Brigadier-General O. C. Sixty-One, or how some wheels went Round. London: H. J. Drane, n.d.


From the Proceedings of the Royal Artillery Institution/Journal of the Royal Artillery

Anon. "The Organization of Counter-Battery Work in Mobile Warfare by a Medium Brigade Allotted to a Division." 63:2 (1936): 171-6.

Anon., but communicated by the Deputy Director General of Ordnance. "Record of Work Carried Out by the Artillery Branch of the Head-Quarters Staff, South African War, 1899-1902." 30:7-9 (1903): 306-12.

Anon., but writing as "Ubique." "Appreciation" of Major-General Sir George Franks KCB. 87:1 (1960): 35-36.

Becke, Major (ret.) A. F. "The Coming of the Creeping Barrage." 58:1 (1931): 19-42.

Bethell, Lieutenant Colonel H. A. "Artillery in the attack and defence of positions." 33:2 (1906): 59-68.

Bingham, Lieutenant Colonel the Hon. F. R. "Practice Camps, 1912, and the lessons to be learnt from them." 39:11 (1913): 419-440.

Bingham, Colonel the Hon. F. R. "Lessons to be Learnt from the 1913 Practice Camps." 40:11 (1914): 481-504.

Body, Captain O. G. "Lessons of the Great War: the barrage versus concentration on selected targets." 53:1 (1926): 59-67.

Bolster, Captain G. E. "'Staffs' in the Divisional Artillery." 38:11 (1912): 494-501.

Broad, Lieutenant Colonel C. N. F. "The Development of Artillery Tactics, 1914-1918." 49:2 (1922): 62-81; and 49:3 (1922): 127-48.

___. "Artillery Intelligence and Counter Battery Work." 49:4 (1922): 187-98.

Brooke, Lieutenant Colonel A. F. "The Evolution of Artillery in the Great War." 51:5 (1925): 250-68; 51:6 (1925): 359-72; 52:1 (1925): 37-51; 52:3 (1925): 369-387; 53:1 (1926): 76-93.

Budworth, Major C. E. D. "Artillery in Co-operation with Infantry." 37:1 (1910): 1-14.

Cadell, Major J. F. "The Organisation of Field Artillery." 31:9 (1905): 347-54.

Callwell, Major C. E. "The training, organisation and equipment of Companies of the Royal Garrison Artillery with medium guns, and howitzers, and their tactics in future field operations." 28:2-3 (1901): 113-131.

Callwell, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel C. E. "The use of Heavy Guns in the field in Europe." 31:1 (1904): 1-12.

Corry, Second Lieutenant F. L. "Suggested Method for Locating Hidden Guns by Sound." 51:12 (1915): 829-33.

du Cane, Brevet Lieutenant Colonel J. P. "Cover and Co-operation." 30:10 (1904): 358-63.

Gordon, W. "Suggestions for the Organization of Divisional Artillery." 49:10 (1923): 483-8.

Headlam, Major-General J. E. W. "Ordnance on the Allied Front." 45:6 (1918): 209-220.

Heylet, Lieutenant R. K. "The Capabilities and Future Role of Field Howitzers." 31:2 (1902): 54-9.

Hill, Captain H. W. "The Conditions Necessary to Produce Shrapnel Effect." 40:1 (1913): 1-26.

Holmes Wilson, Captain C. "The Divisional Artillery Commander." 32:9 (1906): 402-3.

Lloyd, Captain H. G. "Methods of Controlling the Fire of an Artillery Brigade." 32:7 (1906): 313-4.

Lyon, Major C. "How to obtain the best fire effect from a Field Howitzer Battery?" 31:2 (1904): 68-73.

MacLeod, Major R. W. "Some Notes on Counter-Battery Work with Divisional Artillery." 63:1 (1936): 12-32.

Nanson, Major M. R. C. "The Ready Use of Trigpoints in Moving Warfare." 49:4 (1922): 181-6.

Nicholls, Major E. G. "The training, organisation and equipment of Companies of the Royal Garrison Artillery with medium guns, and howitzers, and their tactics in future field operations." 28:2-3 (1901): 97-111.

___. "The Type of Guns that should be employed with Artillery in the Field." 28:4-5 (1901): 225-233.

Penrose, Major J. "Survey for Batteries." 49:6 (1923): 253-70.

Pollard, Lieutenant G. B., trans. "The Fire of Field Artillery over its own Infantry." 41:6 (1915): 426-7.

Saunders, Major W. P. "The Organisation of Field Artillery." 32:1 (1905): 33-6.

Simpson, Colonel H. C. C. D. "The Future Role and Organisation of our Siege Artillery in War." 32:9 (1906): 385-91.

Stirling, Captain W. A. "A Registration Map for (Permanent) Battery Positions." 43:5 (1916): 155-7.

Stone, Brigadier-General F. G. "Co-operation between Artillery and Infantry." 42:9 (1916): 455-65.

Uniacke, Major-General H. C. C. "Actions Performed by the Artillery of the Fifth Army." 45:8 (1919): 255-82.

Wason, Major S. R. "Sums in the Field." 45:6 (1918): 189-96.

Webb, Lieutenant Colonel A. H. "Duties of a Heavy Artillery Brigade Commander in the Field." 46:10 (1918): 447-50.

Weber, Captain W. H. F. "A Divisional Artillery Staff in the Field." 37:10 (1911): 409-19.

Weber, Major W. H. F. "Some notes and suggestions on the control of Divisional Artillery in, or for, the battle." 38:10 (1912): 417-35.

Weber, Lieutenant Colonel W. H. F. "With the Field Artillery from Trench to Open Warfare on the Western Front." 45:11-12 (1919): 357-62.

___. "A Tactical Study of the Field Artillery Group in Retreat." 46:8 (1920): 353-81; 46:9 (1920): 385-403; 46:10 (1920): 433-46; 46:11 (1920): 471-91; 46:12 (1920): 517-31.

Weber, Colonel W. H. F. "A Field Artillery Group in the General Advance." 49:7 (1923): 305-22; 49:8 (1923): 349-75.

Williams-Wynn, Major H. C. "The Brigade System in the Royal Field Artillery." 32:1 (1905): 17-21.

Wing, Colonel F. D. V. "The necessity for a High Explosive Shell for Field Artillery." 33:6 (1907): 271-3.

Wynne, Lieutenant Colonel J. G. E. "The Employment of Siege Batteries with the Field Army." 38:6 (1912): 283-90.

Wynter, Captain H. W. "The Action of Artillery in Close Support of an Infantry Attack." 39:9 (1913): 347-57.

___. "Higher Artillery Command in War." 40:2 (1912): 57-68.

Wynter, Brigadier H. W. "The Revival of the Barrage." 70:4 (1943): 272-6.

Other Journals

Anon. "The Other Side of the Hill, No. II." Army Quarterly 8:1 (1924): 72-85.

___. "The Other Side of the Hill, No. XVI." Army Quarterly 36:2 (1938): 242-8.

Birch, General Sir Noel. "Artillery Development in the Great War." Army Quarterly 1:1 (October 1920): 79-89.

"F. W." "Artillery and the General Staff." Journal of the Royal United Services Institute 64:455 (August 1919): 470-77.

"Foresight." "The Present Value of Artillery Fire in the Field." United Service Magazine 32:924 (new series) (1905): 243-7.

Holmes Wilson, Captain C. "The Divisional Artillery." United Service Magazine 31:919 (new series) (1905): 269-71.

Holmes Wilson, Major C. "Artillery 'Sous La Main.'" United Service Magazine 41:919 (new series) (1910): 329-332.

McNaughton, Brigadier-General A. G. L. "Counter Battery Work." Canadian Defence Quarterly 3:4 (1926): 14-26

McNaughton, Major-General A. G. L. "The Capture of Valenciennes: A Study in Co-ordination." Canadian Defence Quarterly 10:3 (1933): 279-94.

Marble, Sanders. "General Haig Dismisses Attritional Warfare, January 1916." Journal of Military History 65:4 (2001): 1061-4.

Owen, Major-General C. H. "The Rearmament of our Artillery." United Service Magazine 31:919 (new series) (1905): 259-68.

Weber, Lieutenant Colonel W. H. F. "The Development of Mobile Artillery 1914-1918." Journal of the Royal United Services Institution 64:453 (1919): 49-58.

Secondary Sources

Bailey, Colonel J. B. A. Field Artillery and Firepower. Oxford: Military Press, 1989.

Bailey, Jonathan. The First World War and the Birth of the Modern Style of Warfare. Camberley: Strategic and Combat Studies Institute, Occasional Paper Number 22, 1996.

Bidwell, Shelford. Gunners at War: A Tactical Study of the Royal Artillery in the Twentieth Century. London: Arms and Armour Press, 1970.

___. "Indirect Fire Artillery as a Battle-Winner/Loser." In C. Barnett et al, Old Battles and New Defences: Can We Learn from Military History? London: Brassey's, 1986.

Bidwell, Shelford and Graham, Dominick. Firepower: British Army Weapons and Theories of War 1904-1945. London: Allen & Unwin, 1982.

Bond, Brian. The Victorian Army and the Staff College 1895-1914. London: Eyre Meuthen, 1972.

Callwell, General Sir Charles and Headlam, General Sir John. The History of the Royal Artillery from the Indian Mutiny to the Great War. 3 volumes. Woolwich: Royal Artillery Institution, 1931, 1937, 1938. (Last two are by Headlam alone).

Chasseaud, Peter. Topography of Armageddon: A British trench map atlas of the western front, 1914-1918. London: Mapbooks, 1991.

Cole, C, ed. Royal Flying Corps Communiqués 1915-1916. London: Tom Donovan, 1990.

Farndale, General Sir Martin. History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, Western Front 1914-18. Woolwich: The Royal Artillery Institution, 1986.

___. History of the Royal Regiment of Artillery: The Forgotten Fronts and the Home Base 1914-18. Woolwich: The Royal Artillery Institution, 1988.

Farrar-Hockley, Anthony. Goughie: The life of General Sir Hubert Gough GCB, GCMG, KCVO. London: Hart-Davis, MacGibbon, 1975.

French, David. "The Military Background to the 'Shell Crisis' of May 1915." Journal of Strategic Studies 2:2 (September 1979): 192-205.

Gough, General Sir Hubert. The Fifth Army. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1931.

Griffith, Paddy. Battle Tactics of the Western Front: The British Army's Art of Attack 1916-18. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994.

Griffith, Paddy, ed. British Fighting Methods in the Great War. London: Frank Cass, 1996.

Gudmundsson, Bruce I. On Artillery. London: Praeger, 1993.

Harris, J. P. Men, Ideas and Tanks: British military thought and armoured forces, 1903-1939. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.

Hartcup, Guy. The War of Invention: Scientific Developments, 1914-18. London: Brassey's, 1988.

Harvey, A. J. W. "The School of Artillery." Army Quarterly 68:2 (July 1954): 198-208.

Hughes, Major-General B. P. Open Fire: Artillery tactics from Marlborough to Wellington. Chichester: Antony Bird Publications, 1983.

Hughes, Jackson. "The Monstrous Anger of the Guns: The Development of British Artillery Tactics, 1914-1918." University of Adelaide, Ph.D. dissertation,1992.

James, N. D. G. Gunners at Larkhill: A History of the Royal School of Artillery. Henley-on-Thames: Gresham Books, 1983.

Jones, H. A. The War in the Air: Being the Story of The part played in the Great War by the Royal Air Force, vol. II. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1928.

Kearsey, Lieutenant Colonel A. 1915 Campaign in France: The Battles of Aubers Ridge, Festubert & Loos, Considered in relation to the Field Service Regulations. Aldershot: Gale & Polden, n.d., c. 1928.

Kevles, Daniel J. "Flash and Sound in the AEF: The History of a Technical Service." Military Affairs 33:3 (December 1969): 374-84.

Kirke, R. M. St.G. "Some Aspects of Artillery Development During the First World War on the Western Front." Journal of the Royal Artillery 101:2 (1973): 130-40.

Lewendon, R. J. "The Cutting of Barbed Wire Entanglements by Artillery Fire in World War I." Journal of the Royal Artillery 112:2 (1984): 115-7.

Marble, Sanders. "Secret Weapons in the British Artillery, 1916-1917." Military and Naval History Journal 11 (April 2000): 43-51.

___. "Artillery, Intelligence and Optimism: Wire-cutting during the Somme Bombardment." Stand To! 61 (April 2001): 36-39.

Maurice, Colonel Sir Frederick, et al. History of the War in South Africa 1899-1902. London: HMSO, 4 volumes, 1906-1910.

Middlebrook, Martin. The First Day on the Somme: 1 July 1916. London: Penguin, 1984.

___. The Kaiser's Battle: 21 March 1918, the first day of the German Spring Offensive. London: Penguin, 1983.

Nicholson, G. W. L. The Gunners of Canada: The History of the Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery vol. I, 1534-1919. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1967.

Oldham, Peter. Pill Boxes on the Western Front. London: Leo Cooper, 1995.

Palazzo, Albert P. "The British Army's Counter-Battery Staff Office and Control of the Enemy in World War I." Journal of Military History 63:1 (January 1999): 55-74.

Pakenham, Thomas. The Boer War. New York: Random House, 1979.

Powell, Geoffrey. Plumer: The Soldier's General. London: Leo Cooper, 1990.

Prior, Robin and Wilson, Trevor. Command on the Western Front: The Military Career of Sir Henry Rawlinson 1914-18. Oxford: Blackwell, 1992.

___. Passchendaele: the untold story. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996.

Rainey, James W. "The Questionable Training of the AEF in World War I." Parameters 22:4 (1992): 89-103.

___. "Ambivalent Warfare: The Tactical Doctrine of the AEF in World War I." Parameters 13:3 (1983): 34-46.

Rawling, Bill. Surviving Trench Warfare: Technology and the Canadian Corps, 1914-1918. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1992.

Scales, Robert H., Jr. "Artillery in Small Wars: The Evolution of British Artillery Doctrine, 1860-1914." Duke University, Ph. D. dissertation, 1976.

___. Firepower in Limited War, revised edition. Novato, California: Presidio, 1997.

Simkins, Peter. Kitchener's Army: The Raising of the New Armies, 1914-16. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988.

Terraine, John. Mons: Retreat to Victory. London: Batsford, 1960.

___. To Win A War: 1918, The Year of Victory. New York: Doubleday, 1981.

___. The Smoke and the Fire: Myths & Anti-myths of War 1861-1945. London: Leo Cooper, 1980.

___. "Indirect Fire as a Battle Winner/Loser." In C Barnett, et al, Old Battles and New Defences: Can We Learn from Military History? London: Brassey's, 1986.

___. Douglas Haig: The Educated Soldier. London: Hutchinson, 1963.

Tomlinson, M. J. "Handling Artillery Within the Corps." British Army Review 75 (December 1983): 5-15.

Towle, P. A. "The Influence of the Russo-Japanese War on British Military and Naval Thought." University of London, Ph.D. dissertation, 1973.

Travers, Tim. The Killing Ground: The British Army, the Western Front & the Emergence of Modern Warfare, 1900-1918. London: Routledge, 1987.

___. How The War Was Won: Command and Technology in the British Army on the Western Front, 1917-1918. London: Routledge, 1992.

Ventham, Philip and Fletcher, David. Moving the Guns: The Mechanisation of the Royal Artillery, 1854-1939. London: HMSO, 1990.

Wavell, A. P. The Palestine Campaigns. London: Constable & Co. Ltd., 1928.

Wiest, Andrew. Passchendaele and the Royal Navy. New York: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Wynne, G. C. If Germany Attacks: The Battle in Depth in the West. London: Faber & Faber, 1940.

Zabecki, David T. Steel Wind: Colonel Georg Bruchmüller and the Birth of Modern Artillery. London: Praeger, 1994.



"The Infantry cannot do with a gun less": The Place of the Artillery
in the British Expeditionary Force, 1914-1918