Smoke screen, near Peronne, 5 September 1918. This smoke screen is just starting, and is apparently intended to block German observation or machine-gun fire from the low hills in the distance. By 1918 there was greater flexibility in using artillery to deny the Germans a position, either by shelling the position so that machine-guns or observation posts could not function properly, or to create a smokescreen for the same purposes. Both options reflected a greater confidence in the British infantry's ability to fight with support, instead of having the artillery conquer and the infantry occupy.

Source: IWM photo E3191.