An Officer always sleeps in the C.B. Office, and the system here has been that the Officer on night duty goes on at 11.0 p.m. and comes off at 8.0 a.m. and does not come to the Office until 2.0 p.m. As a rule, even during normal trench warfare, the amount of sleep the Officer on night duty gets is negligible. Other Ranks:
One Clerk is insufficient. The following was the arrangement in this corps
As regards the last sub-para, of para. 1:
The principle carried out in this corps was that generally speaking in a 4 Battery Brigade, 2 batteries were always available for C.B. work, 1 for Division work and 1 was in action resting, but should the occasion demand it, all batteries were available for C.B. work. A list was given daily at 5.0 p.m. by the H.A. of those batteries which were not always available for C.B. work, which might be used for C.B. work on the following day. There was never any difficulty.
3. As regards the Office, it is considered that the following is a good plan. It has been found to work well in our case
The mounted map should also show the position of our batteries with their arcs of fire, also all O.Ps. including Obs. "Group O.Ps." If possible the scale to be 1/10000, the radius of the arc of fire to be 1000 yards shown thus
Guns in action report is received from H.A. at 6.0 a.m. daily. A running log is kept, form attached (marked A) in connection with this log. In front of the Officer on duty is a map upon which flags are placed (a) in our areas shelled (b) in hostile batteries active from 6.0 a.m.6.0 a.m. This shows at a glance what has been happening during the 24 hours.
The Blackboard is only necessary during operations. The progress of Destructive Shoots is kept in a book, specimen page attached (marked B). The result of our own C.B. work is kept on the log table, form attached. [not reproduced]
Page 2 (Two). Communications.
The question of forming double groups is entirely a matter for the B.G.H.A. It is the duty of the C.B.S.O. to keep the B.G.H.A. constantly informed as to the changes in grouping of the hostile artillery, so that the latter can consider the adviseability or otherwise of altering his dispositions.
Sub- para . 4.
Last sub-para, last line, for "through" would suggest "by"; for "should be" suggest "are".
5. Duties of C.B.S.O.
For "Policy" suggest "carries out the policy as laid down by the corps."
For Siting of Artillery: "suggests or advises as to siting of Artillery in accordance with hostile artillery movements."
Omit weekly report and enter against Intelligence Officer.
(Copy of standing orders attached)
Daily total of hostile rounds fired (this is kept in diagramatic form and has been found to fit in very well with the activity)
The sorting out next day of all shelling reported on the daily reports and that on the log is in itself a large task.
6. Policy always changes with the situation on any portion of the front or with the situation on other parts of the front. Generally C. B. work should be vigorous and continuous whenever possible, but the actual amount of vigour varies from a variety of causes, some of which may be tactical, or it may be advisable to keep quiet to give the enemy false estimate of our strength etc. etc. Possibly it is inadvisable to lay down a policy under 2 phases.
p. 4 sub-para. 2. Add to list "approximate arc of fire"
7. p. 4 sub-para. 7.
A good way of visualising hostile artillery activity is to have 10 C.B. maps put up, 7 of which show activity for each day by means of flags as follows. Assuming for report purposes the week begins on Wednesday: Coloured flags representing number of times active are required viz: 1st time active during the weekwhite, 2nd timered, 3rd timeblue, 4th timeyellow, 5th timegreen, 6th timepurple, 7th timeblack. At the end of each week the total activity is transferred to one map, coloured flags represent-ing times active being used, 3 weeks before the current week can thus be shown so that at any time a month's activity is before one, the current week's or latest activity always being in detail.
In addition activity sheets are very useful, specimen attached (marked F) These show hostile battery form at a glance very clearly and are most helpful.
It might here be remarked that it is very necessary to have shown clearly what our batteries can do in the way of range and arc.
If the numbers of batteries are marked (different coloured inks for brigades) on the sub-squares (of a C.B. map) which they can reach, it greatly facilitates compiling operation orders and arranging for concentrations, e.g.
As regards photographs it is considered that the system of cutting out little bits of the photo showing the actual position is not good. It is necessary to see and compare what is and has been going on in the vicinity. The card index system is quick and I think infinitely preferable. The little bits stuck on the photos look very nice but are not enough by any means. Photos should be card indexed by
p 5 line 9. After "intentions" and "ruses" might be added e.g. running guns, guns only firing at night, guns firing singly, a 4 gun battery having 3 silent guns and 1 gun active, dummy positions etc. etc.
To the list of indications might be added.
An indication worth noting is an extraordinary number of explosions obtained during an ordinary destructive shoot.
In this connection the reconnaissance of suspicious places e.g. dumps of ammunition should be carried out; even an occasional shoot along hedges where ammunition may be stored should be reconnoitered. The most important thing is to discover the dumping of ammunition at probable battery positions, as it is now not sound to herald an attack by registration and an increased artillery activity etc. Guns will be rushed in. For corroboration of this note intended attack by Germans on Lys salient latter part of July.
The time for us to occupy Battle positions must be carefully considered. This is based largely on C.B. appreciations when there is reason to believe enemy may attack.
8. Attached a copy of this corps' C.B. standing orders.
If possible the squadron Liaison Officer should be given the next days programme by 6.0 p.m. at the latestat any rate the bulk of it. As regards "red hot" it is necessary sometimes to take batteries on the same day and to arrange to have a plane waiting for such a shoot"red hot" on one day, if enemy is running a lot, may be cold the next day. In fact in every squadron there should be at least one "waiting" machine always available.
Reference early morning shoots, or when the light is not too good for observation, it often happens that shoots are started and no observations are received and eventually C.I. is sent. While thoroughly appreciating the R.A.F. side of the question and realising the necessity of "trying" it appears that perhaps a weather report from an experienced observer should be sent more frequently.
As regards times of shoots it is best to let the R.A.F. name the hour; it is inadvisable to state how many shoots should or should not be done at daybreak.
Often owing to light or weather the early morning is the only time it is possible to carry out shoots.
p 6. As regards details of C.B. programme vide attached form (marked b).
The programme is wired in addition to Corps R.A., O.C. Balloon Co., O.C. Observation Centre; the two latter can greatly assist by getting the rough off the ranging for an aeroplane shoot provided that it is assured that the plane will continue directly the balloon or observation section ceases.
A very telling form of C.B. work against personnel, is to arrange concentrations on active batteries by units that have had a registration during the day in the vicinity of the target.
There are various methods of varying the application of C.B. fire against material and personnel, the more the better.
It is important that the R.A.F. Pilots know the programme targets during operations. N.T's. on such occasions are just as important as N.F's.
Programme targets are usually classed as A, B or C.
Daily reports also sent to Infantry Brigades and Divisional "G's" also Brigades R.F.A. This is very necessary if they are to take an interest in the action of our own and the enemy artillery.
Specimen daily and weekly report is attached (marked K&L).
As regards the C.B.S.O. He should "liaise" freely with Infantry Brigades and Heavy and Field Artillery Brigades.
If time and strength of staff admit, liaison down to companies should be carried out.
Whenever an Infantry Brigade is out of the line arrangements should be made for as many Officers (particularly the seniors) as possible to attend the C.B. Office for one or two lectures.
Further Divisional Artillery Officers should be attached now and again to the C.B. Office for short periods.
An R.A. Liaison Officer with the Balloons does not appear to be necessary.
The C.B.S.O. should lecture the R.A.F. Officers as required.
Amongst the duties of the Wing R.A. Officer, who should be a B.C. of some experience, might be included Lectures on elementary gunnery, systems of ranging etc. to R.A.F. Officers.
Interchange of Officers between R.A. and R.A.F. for short periods of attachment should be arranged between C.B.S.O. and O.C. Squadron.