Note 1: St. Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179); St. Teresa of Ávila (1515-1582); Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz (1648-1695). Back.
Note 2: Eckenstein, op. cit., 5. Back.
Note 3: Muriel, Conventos, op. cit. Back.
Note 4: "Nuns were the ones who formed the Mexican woman and the definitive traits of her personality" ([monjas] fueron las que formaron a la mujer mexicana y esculpieron en ella los razgos definitivos de su personalidad) Ibid., 502. Back.
Note 5: For a recent, sympathetic view of the Lutheran attack on feminine monasticism, see Steven Ozment, When Fathers Ruled: Family Life in Reformation Europe (Harvard, 1983), 15-25. A more critical view of Lutheran anti-monasticism is presented by Lyndal Roper, The Holy Household: Women and Morals in Reformation Augsburg (Oxford, 1989), 2-3, 18, 206-67 passim. See also Ulinka Rublack, "Pregnancy, Childbirth and the Female Body in Early Modern Germany," Past and Present 150 (February 1996), 84-110; 87-8. Back.
Note 6: Gill, op. cit., 16. Back.
Note 7: Here Joan Scott's second trait of herstory - critiquing received notions of progress - comes into play. See Scott, Gender and the Politics of History, op cit., 18-19. Back.
Note 8: Penelope Johnson, Equal in Monastic Profession: Religious Women in Medieval France (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991). Back.
Note 9: Morris, op. cit. Back.
Note 10: Eckenstein, op. cit., 482. Back.
Note 11: Elizabeth Rapley, The Dévotes: Women and Church in Seventeenth-Century France (Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1990). Back.
Note 12: Schwaller, op. cit., 10. Back.
Note 13: See Susan Soeiro, "The Social and Economic Role of the Convent: Women and Nuns in Colonial Bahia, 1677-1800." HAHR 54, #2 (May 1974), 209-232; 218. Also see Lavrin, "Women in Convents." Back.
Note 14: Ibid. Unfortunately, studies of the dowry in Colonial Spanish America tend to concentrate on the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. See, for example, A. Lavrin and Edith Couturier, "Dowries and Wills: A View of Women's Socioeconomic Role in Colonial Guadalajara and Puebla, 1640-1790," HAHR 59, No. 2 (May 1979), 280-304. Back.
Note 15: This was true in the Middle Ages as well; see Johnson, op. cit., 24. Back.
Note 16: Julian Pitt-Rivers, "Honour and Social Status," in Peristiany, ed. Honour and Shame: The Values of Mediterranean Society (London, 1965) 21-77; 45. Pitt-Rivers calls this an ancient saying, but provides no provenance. Back.
Note 17: For the quotation, see Elizabeth Rapley, op. cit., 19. Back.
Note 18: See Solange Alberro, "Beatriz de Padilla: Mistress and Mother," in David Sweet and Gary Nash, eds. Struggle and Survival in Colonial America (Berkeley/Los Angeles: University of California, 1981), 247-256; 255). Back.
Note 19: See Mary Elizabeth Perry, Gender and Disorder in Early Modern Seville (Princeton, 1990). Back.
Note 20: See Soeiro, op. cit., and "Catarina de Monte Sinay: Nun and Entrepreneur," in David Sweet and Gary Nash, eds., Struggle and Survival in Colonial America (op. cit.). Back.
Note 21: Electa Arenal, "The Convent as Catalyst for Autonomy: Two Hispanic Nuns of the Seventeenth Century," in Beth Miller, ed. Women in Hispanic Literature: Icons and Fallen Idols (Berkeley: University of California, 1983); 147-183; 149. Back.
Note 22: Electa Arenal, "Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: Reclaiming the Mother Tongue," Letras Femeninas 11, Nos. 1-2 (1985); 63-75. Arenal summarizes the debate in "Comment on Paz's Juana Ramírez'." Signs 5, No. 3 (Spring 1980); 552-55. For a very different view, see Octavio Paz, Sor Juana: or, the Traps of Faith trans. Margaret Sayers Peder (Harvard, 1988). Volume 16, No. 3 (1983) of The University of Dayton Review is entirely dedicated to Sor Juana. Back.
Note 23: Touring Seville's Monasterio de Santa Paula, I was shown a beautiful snail-shaped staircase which was designed by one of the convent's nuns: a woman, I was proudly told, utterly without architectural training. Back.
Note 24: Alison Weber, Teresa of Ávila and the Rhetoric of Femininity (Princeton, 1990). Back.
Note 25: That is, an experience most often associated with women, but by no means foreign to men. Back.
Note 26: See, for example, Caroline Walker Bynum, "The Female Body and Religious Practice in the Later Middle Ages," in Fragments for a History of the Human Body, Vol. 1, ed. Michael Feher with Ramona Naddaff and Nadia Tazi (New York: Zone, 1989), 161-219; 171 passim. Jean Franco argues, however, that the writings of mystical women confirmed the identification of women with the irrational and therefore "ceded discursive space." See "Writers in Spite of Themselves: The Mystical Nuns of Seventeenth-Century Mexico," in Jean Franco, Plotting Women: Gender and Representation in Mexico (New York: Columbia University Press, 1989), 3-22. Back.
Note 27: Electa Arenal and Stacey Schlau, Untold Sisters: Hispanic Nuns in Their Own Works, with translations by Amanda Powell (New Mexico, 1989). Back.
Note 28: T.E. Kendrick, Mary of Agreda: The Life and Legend of a Spanish Nun (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1967); Joaquín Pérez Villanueva, "Sor María de Ágreda y Felipe IV: un epistolario en su tiempo." In Historia de la Iglesia en España, Vol. IV, La Iglesia en la España de los siglos XVII y XVIII, ed. Antonio Mestre Sanchis (Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 1979); 359-417. See also Pérez Villanueva's added bibliography, on 359-60. Back.
Note 29: Ronald E. Surtz, The Guitar of God: Gender, Power, and Authority in the Visionary World of Mother Juana de la Cruz (1481-1534) (Pennsylvania, 1990). Back.
Note 30: Kathleen Ann Myers, Word from New Spain: The Spiritual Autobiography of Madre María de San José (1656-1719) (Liverpool University Press, 1993). Back.
Note 31: Concepción Torres, Ana de Jesús: Cartas (1590-1621): Religiosidad y vida cotidiana en la clausura femenina del Siglo de Oro (Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca, 1995). Back.
Note 32: Asunción Lavrin, "De su puño y letra: epístolas conventuales," in Manuel Ramos Medina, ed., El monacato femenino en el Imperio Español: monasterios, beaterios, recogimientos y colegios, Memoria del II Congreso Internacional (Mexico: Condumex, 1995), 43-59. Back.
Note 33: Josefina Muriel, Cultura Femenina Novohispana (Mexico: UNAM, 1982), 41 passim. Back.
Note 34: See the essays in Monson, ed., The Crannied Wall: Women, Religion, and the Arts in Early Modern Europe (op. cit.). Back.
Note 35: Judith C. Brown, Immodest Acts: The Life of a Lesbian Nun in Renaissance Italy (Oxford, 1986). Back.
Note 36: See, for example, Luisa Ciammitti's study of a seventeenth-century Ursuline brought before the Holy Office of Bologna on charges of false sanctity: "One Saint Less: The Story of Angela Mellini, a Bolognese Seamstress (1667-17[?])," In Muir and Ruggiero, eds., Sex and Gender in Historical Perspective (op. cit.), 141-76. Back.
Note 37: See Anne Jacobson Schutte, "Inquisition and Female Autobiography: The Case of Cecilia Ferrazzi," in Monson, op. cit., 105-118; 106. Back.
Note 38: Las indias caciques de Corpus Cristi (Mexico: UNAM, 1963); Los recogimientos de mujeres: Respuesta a una problemática social novohispana (Mexico: UNAM, 1974); Cultura femenina novohispana, op. cit.; La sociedad novohispana y sus colegios de niñas (Mexico: UNAM, 1995). Back.
Note 39: For a general view, see her "Religious Life of Mexican Women in the XVIII Century" (Ph.D. diss., Harvard, 1962). For a synthesis of her research and of the field, see "Female Religious," in Cities and Society in Colonial Latin America, ed. Louisa Schell Hoberman, Susan Migden Socolow (New Mexico, 1986), 165-95. See also her two edited collections: Sexuality and Marriage in Colonial Latin America (Nebraska, 1989); and Latin American Women: Historical Perspectives (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1975). Back.
Note 40: "Ecclesiastical Reform of Nunneries in New Spain in the Eighteenth Century," The Americas XXII, No. 2 (October 1965), 182-203. Back.
Note 41: See her "Role of the Nunneries in the Economy of New Spain in the Eighteenth Century," Hispanic American Historical Review 46, No. 4 (November 1966), 371-93; "El Convento de Santa Clara de Querétaro: La administración de sus propiedades en el siglo XVIII," Historia Mexicana XXV, No. 1 (JulySeptember 1975); and "Women in Convents: Their Economic and Social Role in Colonial Mexico," in Liberating Women's History: Theoretical and Critical Essays, ed. Berenice Carroll (Chicago: University of Illinois, 1976). Back.
Note 42: "Problems and Policies in the Administration of Nunneries in Mexico 1800-1835," The Americas XXVII, No. 1 (July 1971) and "Mexican Nunneries from 1835 to 1860: Their Administrative Policies and Relations with the State," The Americas XXVII, No. 3 (January 1972). Back.
Note 43: See her "Values and Meaning of Monastic Life for Nuns in Colonial Mexico," Catholic Historical Review 58 (October 1972), 367-87; "Unlike Sor Juana? The Model Nun in the Religious Literature of Colonial Mexico," University of Dayton Review 16, No. 3 (1983), 75-92; "Women and Religion in Spanish America," in Women and Religion in America, Vol. II, The Colonial and Revolutionary Periods, ed. R. Radford Ruether and R. Skinner Keller (Harper and Row, 1983), 42-78. Back.
Note 44: See the essays in Manuel Ramos Medina, ed., El Monacato Femenino en el Imperio Español: Monasterios, beaterios, recogimientos y colegios (Mexico: CONDUMEX, 1995). Most of the essays relate to New Spain, though other regions of the Hispanic world are also represented. Back.
Note 45: See Myers, op. cit. Back.
Note 46: Rosalva Loreto Lopez, "La sensibilidad y el cuerpo en el imaginario de las monjas poblanas del siglo XVII," in Ramos Medina, ed., Monacato femenino, op. cit., 541-556. Back.
Note 47: The definitive work remains Arenal and Schlau, Untold Sisters, op. cit. Back.
Note 48: Op. cit., 293 passim. Back.
Note 49: Op. cit., 293 passim. Back.
Note 50: Elisa Sampson Vera Tudela, Colonial Angels: Narratives of Gender and Spirituality in Mexico 1580-1750 (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2000). Back.
Note 51: Kathryn Burns' work on the convents of Cuzco, for example, has not been matched for New Spain. See her "Convents, Culture, and Society in Cuzco, Peru, 1550-1865" (Ph.D., Harvard, 1993); "Conventos, criollos, y la economía espiritual del Cuzco, siglo XVII," in Ramos Medina, ed., Monacato femenino, op. cit., 311-318. Back.
Escogidas Plantas: Nuns and Beatas in Mexico City, 1531-1601