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As with any work of this size, its completion could not have been achieved without the help of numerous people.


First deserving mention is my department chair at West Chester University, Dick Webster, who got the ball rolling by encouraging my nomination for the American Historical Association's Gutenberg-e Prize. That nomination, of course, would not have been possible without the assistance of my dissertation advisor, Richard Bienvenu. It was also his timely assistance via the marvel of electronic mail that helped me time and again during my research trip to Paris in the summer of 1996.


I am also grateful to Bob Darnton, to the American Historical Association, to Columbia University Press, and to the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation for creating the Gutenberg-e program, which has given young scholars a better opportunity to see their dissertations in "print." I am appreciative for the patience and encouragement displayed by the staff of Columbia University Press's EPIC program: Kate Wittenberg, Gordon Dahlquist, Karen Sabino Desiderio, and Sean Costigan. They dealt not only with me, but also with an ever-growing number of first-time authors who (in turn) were dealing with juggling jobs while transforming dissertations into scholarly monographs. In the process, they helped us to explore the possibilities of scholarly electronic publishing. Thank you also to Paul Erickson for helping me to hone this text into its final form.


I hardly know where to begin in expressing my appreciation to my colleagues and the administration at West Chester University of Pennsylvania. To Dick Webster and Tom Heston, who arranged my teaching schedule to help me find time to finish this project and who always found the time to lend me a sympathetic ear, and to the rest of the history department whose unflagging encouragement kept me going, thanks. To the Dean of Arts and Sciences and the Faculty Development Committee who provided funds for equipment, travel, and research in Italy, I am grateful. Who would have thought that there still remained a university that was both dedicated to quality teaching and to supporting faculty research?


Thanks also to those at the University of Missouri-Columbia who assisted my original research; I am especially grateful to Department of History for the departmental grant that made my 1996 trip to Paris possible. Thanks to Josephine Johnson, the history reference librarian at Elmer Ellis Library, and especially to the other members of my dissertation committee-John Bullion, Winfield Burggraaff, Patricia Crown, Howard Hinkle, and Charles Nauert-whose insights and suggestions generated ideas for revision that would help to shape this monograph.


I must express my sincere gratitude to the staffs of the Archives Nationales (CARAN) and Bibliothèque Nationale de France (at both the Richelieu and Tolbiac sites), who were quite helpful, patient with someone whose command of spoken French was not, at times, what it could have been, and who frequently went out of their way to assist me in making arrangements to visit other research libraries during my trips. Thanks especially to Serge Loriot, the librarian at the Musée National des Arts et Traditions Populaires, who helped to scour his unique collections for materials that might further my research. I am also indebted to the research librarians at the Bibliothèque, Paul Marmottan, M. Jean-Michel Pianelli, and Madame Ambourg, for opening their wonderful facility to me several months before it was to be reopened to the public in 1996.


To Nathalie Davaut, special thanks for helping me get my verbal French up to sufficient speed to enable me to survive the summer of 1996 in Paris and for her continued friendship. To Liliane and Jean-François Davaut, Nathalie's parents, whose hospitality and enthusiasm for my research (not to mention their cooking talents) have made my every visit to Paris all the more enjoyable, merci.


To Robert C. Jones, my father-in-law and writing mentor, thanks for your tireless efforts, suggested revisions, and help in finding the right word at the right time to achieve the right effect. Without you this would have been a less effective work whose points would have often been disguised by wordiness. And, from the perspective of the fledgling historian of the eighteenth century, more comfortable with yellowing pages of manuscripts than with the wonder of computers, I am grateful to Ellen McLaughlin, the technology coordinator of the South-Central Regional Professional Development Center at the University of Missouri-Rolla, for teaching me something about computers and helping me to prepare illustrations for the dissertation.


Also deserving mention are Jeremy Popkin of the University of Kentucky and Martyn Lyons of the University of New South Wales, whose works on the French Revolutionary press and on the Napoleonic era (respectively) helped to shape my ideas and confirm my suspicions regarding the environment of early Napoleonic propaganda. I am also thankful for their prompt replies to my various queries, which made my research efforts a little easier.


Finally and most importantly, I must thank my wife Elizabeth and my son Michael, who endured Missouri and later Pennsylvania heat and humidity, broken washers and dryers, unanticipated travel arrangements, and the horrors of temporary single-parenthood while I was off in Paris, enjoying crêpes and discovering wonderful anecdotes about the most famous person in French history. I can only hope to be able to repay them for their patience, enthusiasm, and support, and for the many other sacrifices that helped to make my dissertation and the resulting monograph a reality.



The Genesis of Napoleonic Propaganda, 1796-1799