Note 1: Jean Tulard, "L'ère napoléonienne: Problemes et perspectives de recherche," Consortium on Revolutionary Europe, 1750-1850 (1976): 1. Donald Horward notes that by as early as 1908, over 200,000 books had been written about Napoleon or his impact on Europe; see Donald D. Horward, "Napoleon in Review: A Bibliographical Essay," Military Affairs 43 (October 1979): 144. Back.
Note 2: F. G. Healy, The Literary Culture of Napoleon (Geneva: Librairie E. Droz, 1959), 11-12. Back.
Note 3: Harold T. Parker, "Napoleon Reconsidered: An Invitation to Inquiry and Reflection," French Historical Studies 15 (Spring 1987): 144. A similar consensus of interpretation also dominated the larger field of French Revolutionary studies at least until the 1960s, when a series of articles and books began to challenge the classical Marxist interpretation of the Revolution. Back.
Note 4: Parker, "Napoleon Reconsidered," 144-45. Back.
Note 5: See Louis Bergeron, France Under Napoleon, trans. R. R. Palmer (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981). A co-authored work by Louis Bergeron and Guy Chaussinaud-Nogaret should also be noted. Their Les "masses de granit": Cent mille notables du Premier Empire (1979) analyzes the social composition and the fate of the moneyed and landed elite of Napoleonic France. Back.
Note 6: See particularly Robert B. Holtman Napoleonic Propaganda (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1950). Noteworthy among other less specialized works are Geoffrey Ellis's Napoleon (London: Longman, 1997); François Furet's The French Revolution, 1770-1814 (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1996); Martyn Lyons's Napoleon Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French Revolution (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994); Furet's, Revolutionary France, 1770-1880 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1992); Albert Boime's Art in the Age of Bonapartism, 1800-1815 (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1990); Jean Tulard's Napoleon: The Myth of the Savior (London; Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984); R. Ben Jones's, Napoleon: Man and Myth (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1977); Marc Martin's Les Origines de la Presse Militaire en France, 1770-1799 (Chateau de Vincennes: Service Historique de l'Armée de Terre, 1975); André Cabanis's La Presse sous le Consulat et l'Empire (1799-1814) (Paris: Société des Études Robespierristes, 1975); J.M. Thompson's Napoleon Bonaparte (1952); Albert Léon Guerard's Reflections on the Napoleonic Legend (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1924); Romi's "Bibelots de propagande ou de souvenir," Mirror de l'histoire (1959): 46-51; and the entries for propaganda in Tulard et al.'s Dictionnaire Napoléon (Paris: Fayard, 1987) and Owen Connelly et al.'s Historical Dictionary of Napoleonic France, 1799-1815 (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985). Holtman's, Martin's, and Cabanis's works aside, most of these studies offer little analysis of Bonaparte's methods. Back.
Note 7: Holtman, Napoleonic Propaganda, 245. Back.
Note 8: Holtman, Napoleonic Propaganda, 44. See also André Cabanis, La presse sous le Consulat et l'Empire (1799-1814) (Paris: Société des Études Robespierristes, 1975), 3. Back.
Note 9: Holtman, Napoleonic Propaganda, 61-62. See also A. Périver, Napoléon jounaliste (Paris: Plon-Nourrit et Compagnie, 1918), ii; and Cabanis, vii. Back.
Note 10: See for example, Martyn Lyons, France Under the Directory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975); and Lynn Hunt, David Lansky and Paul Hanson, "The Failure of the Liberal Republic in France, 1795-1799: The Road to Brumaire," Journal of Modern History 51 (December 1979): 734-59. Back.
Note 11: Holtman also points out that many of the setbacks were directly the result of "incompetence on the part of his subordinates" (202). Back.
Note 12: Holtman, Napoleonic Propaganda, vii. Also little discussed by Holtman, despite the fact that he included a chapter on the arts, were Napoleon's relationships with the great artists of the day and his influence over the visual arts through patronage and official contests. Back.
Note 13: Napoleon owned or strongly influenced at least six minor Revolutionary newspapers, including: Le Courrier de l'Armée d'Italie, La France vue de l'Armée d'Italie, Journal de Bonaparte et des hommes vertueux, Journal de Malte (no complete run is now extant), Courier de l'Égypte, and La Décade Égyptienne. Because of his focus on the Consular and Imperial eras, Holtman mentions none of these papers. Back.
Note 14: Owen Connelly, Blundering to Glory: Napoleon's Military Campaigns (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1987), 30. Back.
Note 15: From the earliest periods of his career, Bonaparte exhibited a keen understanding of basic propaganda techniques: the use of simple, direct, forceful language to appeal to a mass audience; the use of repetition and half-truths to sustain audience appeal; and the use of ad hominem and ad populum appeals to inspire approval and/or confidence and to create hatred and/or distrust. These propaganda strategies are noted in Holtman's first chapter, "The Message"; also see Cabanis's part 2, chapter 1, for a fuller discussion of Napoleon's use of these techniques during the Consular and Imperial periods. Back.
Note 16: Marc Martin, Les Origins de la Presse Militaire à la fin de l'ancien régime et sous la Révolution (1770-1799) (Château de Vincennes: Service Historiques de l'Armée de Terre, 1975). Back.
Note 17: See Marc Martin, "Journaux d'armées au temps de la Convention," Annales Historique de la Revolution Française 44 (November-December 1972): 585; and Marc Martin "Journaux militaires de Carnot," Annales Historique de la Revolution Française 49 (July-September 1977): 409-10. Back.
Note 18: For excellent discussions on the growth of the popular press during the French Revolution, see Jeremy D. Popkin, Revolutionary News: The Press in France, 1789-1799 (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1990); Hugh Gough, The Newspaper Press in the French Revolution (Chicago: The Dorsey Press, 1988); J. Gilchrist and W. J. Murry, eds., The Press in the French Revolution (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1971); Claude Bellanger, Jacques Godechot, Pierre Guiral and Fernand Terrou, Histoire Générale de la Presse Française, Vol. 1, Des origines à 1814 (Paris: Presses Université de France, 1969); and Jacques Godechot, "L'expansion française et la création de la presse politique dans le bassin méditerranéen," Cahiers de Tunisie (1954): 146-71. Back.
Note 19: Martin, Les presses militaires, 295. Back.
Note 20: See, for example, Geoffrey Ellis, Napoleon (London: Addison Wesley Longman Limited, 1997); Louis Bergeron, France Under Napoleon, trans. R. R. Palmer (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981); and Martyn Lyons, Napoleon Bonaparte and the Legacy of the French Revolution (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1994). Back.
Note 21: Daniel Wildenstein and Guy Wildenstein, Louis David: Recueil de documents complémentaires au catalogue complet de l'oeuvre de l'artiste (Paris: Fondation Wildenstein, 1973), 136 and 141-43; Jacques-Louis Jules David, Le Peintre Louis David 1748-1825: souvenirs et documents inedits (Paris: Victor Harvard, 1880), 338-40; Warren Roberts, Jacques-Louis David, Revolutionary Artist: Art, Politics, and the French Revolution (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1989), 131-33; and David Joseph O'Brien, "The Art of War: Antoine-Jean Gros and French Military Painting, 1795-1804" (Ph.D. diss., University of Michigan, 1994), 74-77. Back.
Note 22: Robert Herbert, David, Voltaire, Brutus and the French Revolution: An Essay in Art and Politics (London: Viking Press, 1972), 103; and David Lloyd Dowd, Pageant-Master of the Republic: Jacques-Louis David and the French Revolution (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1948), 137. Back.
Note 23: See Cecil Hilton Monk Gould, Trophy of Conquest: The Musée Napoléon and the Creation of the Louvre (London: Faber and Faber, 1965). See also W. Treue, Art Plunder: The Fate of Works of Art in War and Unrest, trans. Basil Creighton (Düsseldorf: Droste Verlag, 1961). Back.
Note 24: During the First Empire, for example, the Musée du Louvre would be known as the Musée Napoléon. Back.
Note 25: Jean Babelon, La Médaille de France (Paris: Larousse, 1948), 77, and Jean Babelon, La Médaille et les Médailleurs (Paris: Payot, 1927), 193. Back.
Note 26: Romi [Robert Miquel], "Bibelots de propagande ou de souvenir," Mirror de l'histoire 109 (1959): 46; Lyons, Directory, 212; and R. Ben Jones, Napoleon: Man and Myth (London: Hodder and Stoughton Ltd., 1977), 11. See also Albert Léon Guerard, Reflections on the Napoleonic Legend (New York: Charles Scribners Sons, 1924), which discusses Bonaparte's manipulation of events and achievements to foster his legend. As far as the desire for peace, any number of contemporary newspapers expressed the desire for peace. The 6 October 1796 issue of the Gazette Française contains a lengthy article on the topic. Back.
Note 27: Romi, "Bibelots de propagande," 48. Back.
Note 28: Lyons, Directory, 202. Back.
Note 29: Jean Tulard, Napoleon: The Myth of the Savior, trans. Teresa Waugh (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1984), 61. Back.
Note 30: Perhaps nowhere is this desperation better explained than in Guglielmo Ferrero's The Gamble: Bonaparte in Italy (1795-1797), trans. Bertha Prichard and Lily C. Freeman (New York: Walker, 1961). Back.
Note 31: See, for example, Laura Mason, Singing the French Revolution: Popular Culture and Politics, 1789-1799 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996); and Marvin Carlson, The Theatre of the French Revolution (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1966). Back.
The Genesis of Napoleonic Propaganda, 1796-1799