Regular/Traditional/Printed Citations/Select Archival Sources

Abd Allah. 1969 [1576-7]. Tarikh-i Daudi. S. Abdur Rashid (ed.). Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University.

Adamec, Ludwig W. 1996. Dictionary of Afghan Wars, Revolutions, and Insurgencies. Lanham, Md.: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.

--- 1991. Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan. Metuchen, N.J.: The Scarecrow Press, Inc.

Akin, David, and Joel Robbins (eds.). 1999. Money and Modernity: State and Local Currencies in Melanesia. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

Akhtar, M. Saleem. 1990. Sind under the Mughuls: An Introduction to, Translation of and Commentary on the Mazhar-i Shahjahani of Yusuf Mirak (1044/1634). Islamabad: National Institute of Historical and Cultural Research.

Alam, Muzaffar. 1994. "Trade, State Policy and Regional Change: Aspects of Mughal-Uzbek Commercial Relations, c. 1550–1750." Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 37(3): 202–27.

--- 1986 [1993]. The Crisis of Empire in Mughal North India. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Ali, Shahamat. 1847. The Sikhs and Afghans, in Connexion with the India and Persia, Immediately before and after the Death of Ranjeet Singh; from the journal of an expedition to Kabul, through the Panjab and the Khaibar Pass. London: John Murray.

Allami, Abul Fazl. 1989 [c. 1598-9]. The A'in-i Akbari. H. Blochman (trans.). Delhi: Low Price Publications.

Allan, Nigel, J. R. 2004. "Opium Production in Afghanistan and Pakistan." In Michael K. Steinberg (ed.), Dangerous Harvest: Drug Plants and the Transformation of Indigenous Landscapes. Cary, N.C.: Oxford University Press.

--- 2001. "Defining Place and People in Afghanistan." Post-Soviet Geography and Economy 42(8): 545–60.

Allen, I. N. 1843. Diary of a March through Sinde and Affghanistan with Troops under the Command of General Sir William Nott, K. C. B., & C. London: J. Hatchard and Son.

Ansari, Bayazid. c. 1560. Khair ul-Bayan. London: British Museum, Pakhto MS (microfilm).

Appadurai, Arjun. 1992 [1986]. "Introduction: Commodities and the Politics of Value." In Arjun Appadurai (ed.), The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Ardener, Edwin. 1989. "Remote Areas: Some Theoretical Considerations." In Malcolm Chapman (ed.), Edwin Ardener: The Voice of Prophecy and Other Essays. New York: Blackwell.

Arlinghaus, Joseph T. 1988. The Transformation of Afghan Tribal Society: Tribal Expansion, Mughal Imperialism and the Roshaniyya Insurrection, 1450-1600. PhD Dissertation, Department of History, Duke University.

Astarabadi, Muhammad Mehdi Khan. 1875 [1765–6]. Tarkikh-i Jahangusha-ye Nadiri. Bombay: Matb'a-i Haidari.

Babur, Mirza Zahiruddin Muhammad. 1993 [Persian translation of Turki text c. 1757–8]. Baburnama: Three Parts. W. M. Thackson, Jr. (ed. and trans.). Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations.

Balikci, Asen. 1981. "Pastoralism and Class Differentiation among the Lakenkhel." Journal of Asian and African Studies 16(1–2): 150–7.

Balland, Daniel. 1991. "Nomadism and Politics: The Case of Afghan Nomads in the Subcontinent." Studies in History (n.s.) 7(2): 205–29.

Barani, Ziya ud-Din. 1974 [c. 1320]. Tarikh-i Firoz Shahi. Lahore: Sind Sagar Academy.

Barfield, Thomas J. 1993. The Nomadic Alternative. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc.

Barth, Fredrik. 1969. "Introduction." In Fredrik Barth (ed.), Ethnic Groups and Boundaries: The Social Organization of Cultural Difference. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

--- 1964. "Ethnic Processes on the Pathan-Baluch Boundary." In Morgenstierne 1964.

--- 1961. Nomads of South Persia: The Basseri Tribe of the Khamseh Confederacy. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.

Bayly, C. A. 1996. Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780–1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

--- 1989. Imperial Meridian: The British Empire and the World, 1780–1830. London: Longman.

--- 1988 [1983]. Rulers, Townsmen and Bazaars: North Indian Society in the Age of British Expansion, 1770–1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Beck, Lois. 1986. The Qashqa`i of Iran. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Beley, Mathieu, and Barnett Rubin. 2004. "The Benefits and Drawbacks of doing Business in Afghanistan." Afghanistan Investment and Support Agency Media Magazine I.

Bell, Marjorie Jewett. 1948. An American Engineer in Afghanistan: From the Letters and Notes of A. C. Jewett. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press.

Bentley, G. Carter. 1987. "Ethnicity as Practice." Comparative Studies in Society and History 29(1): 24–55.

Bernier, Francois. n.d. [English translation 1891]. Travels in the Mogul Empire, A. D. 1656-1668. Archibald Constable (trans.). Karachi: Indus Publications.

al-Beruni. 1964. Alberuni's India. Edward C. Sachau (ed.). London: S. Chand.

Bose, Sugata. 2006. A Hundred Horizons: The Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.

Bosworth, Clifford Edmund. 1984. "The Coming of Islam to Afghanistan." In Yohanan Friedmann (ed.), Islam in Asia- Volume 1 South Asia. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press.

--- 1977. The Later Ghaznavids, Splendour and Decay: The Dynasty in Afghanistan and Northern India, 1040–1186. New York: Columbia University Press.

--- 1963. The Ghaznavids: Their Empire in Afghanistan and Eastern Iran, 994–1040. Edinburgh: University Press.

Boulnois, Luce. 2004. Silk Road: Monks, Warriors & Merchants on the Silk Road. Hong Kong: Odyssey.

Boxberger, Linda. 2002. On the Edge of Empire: Hadhramawt, Emigration, and the Indian Ocean, 1880s-1930s. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Broadman, Harry G. 2007. Africa's Silk Road: China and India's New Economic Frontier. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Available at (PDF).

Braudel, Fernand. 1973 [1967]. Capitalism and Material Life, 1400–1800. Miriam Kochan (trans.). New York: Harper and Row Publishers.

--- 1979. Civilization and Capitalism, 15th–18th Century. 3 Vols. (1, Structures of Everyday Life, 2, The Wheels of Commerce, 3, The Perspective of the World). New York: Harper and Row.

Burnes, Alexander. 1992 [1834]. Travels into Bokhara; Being the Account of a Journey from India to Cabool, Tartary, and Persia; Also a Narrative of a Voyage on the Indus. 3 vols. New Delhi: J. Jetley for Asian Educational Services.

Burnes, Alexander, R. Leech, P. B. Lord, and J. Wood (eds.). 1839. Reports and Papers, Political, Geographical, and Commercial. Calcutta: G. H. Huttmann, Bengal Military Orphan Press.

Cullather, Nick. 2002. "Damming Afghanistan: Modernization in a Buffer State." The Journal of American History 89(2): 512–37.

Caroe, Olaf. 1992 [1958]. The Pathans: 550 B. C.–A. D. 1957. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Chakrabarti, Dilip K. 1990. The External Trade of the Indus Civilization. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharial Publishers.

Chandra, Satish. 1987. The Indian Ocean: Explorations in History, Commerce, and Politics. New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Chaudhuri, K. N. 1993. "The Unity and Disunity of Indian Ocean History from the Rise of Islam to 1750: The Outline of a Theory and Historical Discourse." Journal of World History 4(1): 1–22.

--- 1985. Trade and Civilisation in the Indian Ocean: An Economic History from the Rise of Islam to 1750. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Cambridge University Press.

Christian, David. 2000. "Silk Roads or Steppe Roads? The Silk Roads in World History." Journal of World History 2(1): 1–26.

Cohn, Bernard S. 1996. Colonialism and Its Forms of Knowledge: The British in India. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

---. 1987. An Anthropologist among the Historians and Other Essays. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Conolly, Arthur. 1838. Journey to the North of India, Overland from England, through Russia, Persia, and Affghaunistaun. 2 vols. London: Richard Bentley.

Curtin, Philip D. 1996 [1984]. Cross-Cultural Trade in World History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dale, Stephen Frederic. 1994. Indian Merchants and Eurasian Trade, 1600–1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dames, M. Longworth. 1888. "The Coins of the Durranis." Numismatic Chronicle VIII: 325–63.

Dani, Ahmad Hasan. 1995. Peshawar: Historic City of the Frontier. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications.

Darweza, Akhund (Abdul Karim Nangrahari). c. 1580. Makhzan-i Afghani. Pashto MS. Oxford: Bodelian Library #2350.

Das Gupta, Ashin. 2001. The World of the Indian Ocean Merchant, 1500-1800: Collected Essays of Ashin Das Gupta. Uma Das Gupta (ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.

--- 1979. Indian Merchants and the Decline of Surat: c. 1700–1750. Beitrage zur Suedasienforschung, Band 40. Wiesbaden: Steiner.

Davies, R. H. 1862. Report on the Trade and Resources of the Countries on the North-Western Boundary of British India. Lahore: Government Press.

Dictionary of National Biography. 1885–1901. 66 vols. Ed. Leslie Stephen. London: Smith, Elder, & Co.

Dorn, Bernhard. 1829–36. History of the Afghans. London. Susil Gupta.

Duarte, Adrian. 1976 [n.d.]. A History of British Relations with Sind, 1613–1843. Karachi: National Book Foundation.

Dupree, Louis. 1994 [1973]. Afghanistan. New Delhi: Rama Publishers.

--- 1989. "Ethnography of Afghanistan." Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. I, pp. 495–501.

--- 1963. Deh Morasi Ghundai: A Chalcolithic Site in South-Central Afghanistan. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. 50, Part 2.

Dupree, Nancy Hatch. 1990. "Cehel Sotun, Kabul." Encyclopaedia Iranica Vol. V, Fascicle 2, pp. 115–6

--- 1977 [1971]. An Historical Guide to Afghanistan. Kabul: Afghan Tourist Organization.

Eaton, Richard. 2006. "The Rise and Fall of Military Slavery in the Deccan, 1450-1650." In Indrani Chatterjee and Richard M. Eaton (eds.), Slavery & South Asian History. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

Edwards, David B. 1996. Heroes of the Age: Moral Fault Lines on the Afghan Berkeley: University of California Press.

Eisenstein, Elizabeth L. 1983. The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Elphinstone, Mountstuart. 1992 [1815]. An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul, and Its Dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India. 2 vols. Karachi: Indus Publications.

Emerson, John, and Floor, Willem. 1987. "Rahdars and Their Tolls in Safavid and Afsharid Iran." Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 30(3): 318–27.

Faiz Muhammad Katib. 1913–15. Siraj al-Tawarikh. 3 vols. Kabul: Matb`a-i Hurufi-ye dar al-Sultana-ye Kabul.

Fattah, Hala. 1997. The Politics of Regional Trade in Iraq, Arabia, and the Gulf, 1745–1900. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Ferdinand, Klaus. 1969. "Nomadism in Afghanistan: With an Appendix on Milk Products." Viehwirtschaft und Hirtenkultur: Ethnographische Studien. Ed. Laszlo Foldes. Budapest, Akademiai Kiado.

--- 1962. "Nomad Expansion and Commerce in Central Afghanistan." Folk 4: 122-59.

Fleischer, Cornell H. 1986. Bureaucrat and Intellectual in the Ottoman Empire: The Historian Mustafa Ali (1541–1600). Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Franck, Peter G. 1960. Afghanistan between East and West: The Economics of Competitive Coexistence. Washington, D.C.: National Planning Association.

Frederiksen, Birthe, and Ida Nicolaisen. 1996. Caravans and Trade in Afghanistan: The Changing Life of the Nomadic Hazarbuz. London: Thames and Hudson.

Frye, Maxwell J. 1974. The Afghan Economy: Money, Finance, and the Critical Constraints to Economic Development. Leiden: E.J. Brill.

Furdoonjee, Nowrozjee. "Report on the Weights, Measures, and Coins of Cabool and Bokhara." In Burnes, et. al. (eds.)

Gankovsky, Yu. V. 1982 [1981]. "The Durrani Empire." In Afghanistan Past and Present. Social Sciences Today Editorial Board (ed). Moscow: U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences.

Gankovsky, Yu. V. (ed.). 1985 [1982]. A History of Afghanistan. Moscow: Progress Publishers.

Gazetteer of Afghanistan, Vol. 6: Kabul and Southeastern Afghanistan. 1985 [1914]. Ludwig W. Adamec (ed.). Graz, Austria: Akademische Druck-u. Verlagsanstalt.

Gazetteer of the Dera Ismail Khan District, 1883-84. 1989 [1884]. Punjab Government (ed.). Lahore: Sang-e-Meel Publications.

Gazetteer of the Zhob District, Vol. I in the Baluchistan District Gazetteer Series. 1907. Punjab Government (ed.). Bombay: Bombay Education Society Press.

Geertz, Clifford. 1973. "The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in New States." In Clifford Geertz (ed.), The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.

Gommans, Jos J. L. 1995. The Rise of the Indo-Afghan Empire, c. 1710–1780. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Goodhand, Jonathan. 2005. "Frontiers and Wars: The Opium Economy in Afghanistan." Journal of Agrarian Change 5(2): 191-216.

--- 2000. "From Holy War to Opium War: A Case Study in Badakhshan." Disasters 24(2): 87-102.

Goody, Jack. 1996. The East in the West. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

--- 1988 [1986]. The Logic of Writing and the Organization of Society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gray, John Alfred. 1987 [1895]. At the Court of the Amir: A Narrative. London: Darf Publishers, Ltd.

Gregorian, Vartan. 1969. The Emergence of Modern Afghanistan: The Politics of Reform and Modernization, 1880–1946. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Guha, Amalendu. "The Rise of Capitalistic Enterprises in Afghanistan 1929–45." The Indian Economic and Social History Review 1(2): 143–76.

Habib, Irfan. 1986 [1982]. An Atlas of the Mughal Empire: Political and Economic Maps with Detailed Notes, Bibliography, and Index. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Habibi, A. H. 1971. "Khaljis are Afghan Tarak or Turk." Afghanistan 24(2–3): 76–87.

Haig, Wolseley. 1928. Turks and Afghans. The Cambridge History of India, v. 3. New York: Macmillan Co.

Halverson, Michael. 2003. "Wind and Watermills in Iran and Afghanistan." In Richard Tapper and Keith McLachan (eds.), Technology, Tradition, and Survival: Aspects of Material Culture in the Middle East and Central Asia. London: Frank Cass.

Hamilton, Angus. 1906. Afghanistan. London: William Heinemann.

Hanifi, M. Jamil. 2004. “Editing the Past: Colonial Production of Hegemony through the "Loya Jerga" in Afghanistan,” Iranian Studies 37 (2): 295–322.

--- 2000. "Anthropology and the Representations of Recent Migrations from Afghanistan." In Elzbieta M. Gozdziak and Dianna J. Shandy (eds.), Rethinking Refuge and Displacement: Selected Papers on Refugees and Immigrants, Vol. VIII. Arlington, Va.: American Anthropological Association.

Hanifi, Shah Mahmoud. 2008. "Jalalabad." Encyclopaedia Iranica Vol. XIV, Fascicle 4, pp. 400–403.

--- 2006. "Material and Social Remittances to Afghanistan." In C. Wescott and J. Brinkerhoff (eds.), Converting Migration Drains into Gains: Harnessing the Resources of Overseas Professionals. Manila: The Asian Development Bank. Available at (PDF).

--- 2004a. Nation-Building and the Afghan Diaspora, The Carnegie Endowment of International Peace in conjunction with the Middle East Institute (Afghanistan: Promise and Fulfillment Conference, Partners for Afghanistan Panel). Available at

--- 2004b. "Sulayman Khel." The Encyclopedia of Islam (new edition). Supplement Fasc. 11–12, p. 763

--- 2003. "Inter-Regional Trade and Colonial State Formation in Nineteenth-Century Afghanistan." PhD Dissertation, Department of History, The University of Michigan.

Harlan, Josiah. 1862. On the Fruits of Kabul and Vicinity, with a View to the Introduction of the Grapevine of that Region in the Central Climate of the United States. U.S. Congress. Senate. Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the Year 1861, Agriculture. 37th Cong., 2nd sess., 1862. S. Exec. Doc. 39. Serial Set 1122, Session Vol. 5. Readex. Archive of Americana. U.S. Congressional Serial Set. Record Number: 106F11B5654A18C8.

--- 1854. On the Importation of Camels: Agricultural Report. Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the Year 1853, Agriculture. 33rd Cong., 1st sess., 1854. S. Exec. Doc. 27, pt. 2. Serial Set 697, Session Vol. 7. Readex. Archive of Americana. U.S. Congressional Serial Set. Record Number: 1079B144DC2CD460.

Hart, Lockyer Willis Atkinson, and Charles James Haghe. 1843. Character and Costumes of Afghanistan. London: H. Graves & Co.

Haziya, Muhammad Kabir. n.d. Afsanah-i Shahan. London: British Museum MS Add. 24,409.

Hill, Julie. 2006. The Silk Road Revisited: Markets, Merchants and Minarets. Bloomington, Ind: AuthorHouse.

Ho, Engseng. 2006. The Graves of Tarim: Genealogy and Mobility across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hopkins, B. D. 2007. “The Bounds of Identity: The Goldsmid Mission and the Delineation of the Perso–Afghan Border in the Nineteenth Century.” Journal of Global History 2(2): 233–54.

Hough, W. 1841. A Narrative of the March and Operations of the Army of the Indus, in the Expedition to Affghanistan in the Years 1838–1839. London: Wm. H. Allen and Co.

al-Hussaini, Mahmud ibn Ibrahim. 1974 [c. 1773]. Tarikh-i Ahmad Shahi. 2 vols. Ed. D. Saidmuradov. Moscow. U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences.

Irons, William. 1979. "Political Stratification among Pastoral Nomads." In Pastoral Production and Society: Proceedings of the International Meeting on Nomadic Pastoralism. L'Equipe Ecologie et Anthropologie des Societes Pastorales. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Iqbal, Afzal. 1976 [1975]. Circumstances Leading to the First Afghan War. Lahore: Research Society of Pakistan, University of the Punjab.

Jenkyns, W. 1879. Report on the District of Jalalabad, Chiefly in Regard to Revenue. Calcutta: Foreign Department Press.

Jones, Sir William, and Henry Vansittart. 1979 [1790]. "On Descent of the Afghans from the Jews." Asiatic Researches Comprising History and Antiquities, the Arts, Sciences, and Literature of Asia, Vol. 2, pp. 54–61.

Kakar, M. Hasan K. 1979. Government and Society in Afghanistan: The Reign of Amir `Abd Al-Rahman Khan. Austin: University of Texas Press.

--- 1971. Afghanistan: A Study in International Political Developments, 1880–1896. Lahore: Punjab Education Press.

Kandahar Newsletters, 1880–1905. 1990. 10 vols. Ed. Directorate of Archives Department (ed.). Quetta: Government of Baluchistan (Pakistan).

Kasaba, Resat. 1988. The Ottoman Empire and the World Economy: The Nineteenth Century. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Kaye, John William. 1851. History of the War in Afghanistan. 2 vols. London: Richard Bentley.

Khan, Hussain. 1994 [1987]. Sher Shah Sur "Ustad-I-Badshahan Humayun." Alias Sher Shah Suri. Lahore: Ferozsons (Pvt.) Ltd.

Khan, Omar. 2002. From Kashmir to Kabul: The Photographs of John Burke and William Baker, 1860-1900. Prestel: Munich, etc.; Ahmedabad: Mapin Publishing.

Khan, Sultan Mahomed. 1980 [1900]. The Life of Abdur Rahman, Amir of Afghanistan, G.C.B., G.C.S.I. 2 vols. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Khazanov, Anatoly. 1986 [1983]. Nomads and the Outside World. Julia Crookenden (trans.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Khoury, Philip S., and Joseph Kostiner (eds.). 1990. Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East. Berkeley: University of California Press.

King, L. White. 1896. "History and Coinage of the Barakzai Dynasty of Afghanistan." Numismatic Chronicle XVI: 277–347.

Kumar, Sunil. 2006. "Service, Status, and Military Slavery in the Delhi Sultanate: Thirteeneth and Fourteenth Centuries." In Indrani Chatterjee and Richard M. Eaton (eds.), Slavery & South Asian History. Bloomington; Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.

Kurin, Richard. 2002. "The Silk Road—The Making of a Global Cultural Economy." AnthroNotes 23(1).

Lal, Kishori Saran. 1967. History of the Khaljis, A.D. 1290–1320. Bombay: Asia Publishing House.

Lal, Mohan. 1978 [1846]. Life of the Amir Dost Muhammed Khan of Kabul. 2 vols. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

--- 1977 [1846]. Travel in the Punjab, Afganistan and Turkistan to Balk, Bokhara and Herat and a Visit to Great Britain and Germany. Calcutta: K. P. Bagchi.

Levi, Scott Cameron. 2002. The Indian Diaspora in Central Asia and Its Trade, 1550–1900. Leiden: Brill.

Lindholm, Charles. 1980. "Images of Pathan: The Usefulness of Colonial Ethnography." Archives Europeanes Sociologique 21: 350–61.

Lister, Sarah, and Tom Brown with Zainiddin Karaev. 2004. Understanding Markets in Afghanistan: The Raisin Market. Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit.

Lockhart, L. 1993 [1938]. Nadir Shah: A Critical Study Based Mainly upon Contemporary Sources. Jalandhar, India: Asian Publishers.

--- 1958. The Fall of the Safavi Dynasty and the Afghan Occupation of Persia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Macintyre, Ben. 2004. The Man Who Would Be King: The First American in Afghanistan. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.

MacGregor, C. M. 1995 [1871]. Central Asia, Part II: A Contribution toward the Better Knowledge of the Topography, Ethnology, Resources, and History of Afghanistan. Petersfield, U.K.: Barbican Publishing Company Limited.

MacKenzie, D. N. 1964. "The Xayr ul-Bayan." In Morgenstierne 1964.

Mackenzie, F. J. N., 1878. Routes in Asia. Section II: Routes in Afghanistan. Calcutta: Government Printing.

Markovits, Claude. 2003. "Introduction." In Claude Markovits, Jacques Pouchepadass, and Sanjay Subrahmanyam (eds.), Society and Circulation: Mobile People and Itinerant Cultures in South Asia, 1750–1950. Delhi: Permanent Black; Bangalore: Distributed by Orient Longman.

--- 2000. The Global World of Indian Merchants, 1750–1947: Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Martin, Frank A. 1907. Under the Absolute Amir. London: Harper and Brothers.

Masson, Charles. 1997 [1842]. Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and the Panjab, Including a Residence in Those Countries from 1826 to 1838. 3 vols. New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd.

Matthee, Rudi. 1996. "From Coffee to Tea: Shifting Patterns of Consumption in Qajar Iran." Journal of World History 7(2): 199–230.

McChesney, R. D. 1999. Kabul under Seige: Fayz Muhammad's Account of the 1929 Uprising. Princeton, N.J.: Markus Weiner Publishers.

--- 1991. Waqf in Central Asia: Four Hundred Years in the History of a Muslim Shrine, 1440–1889. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

McPherson, Kenneth. 1993. The Indian Ocean: A History of People and the Sea. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Michel, Aloys Arthur. 1939. The Kabul, Kunduz, and Helmand Valleys and the National Economy of Afghanistan. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.

Minhaj Siraj Juzjani. 1970. Tabakat-I-Nasiri: A General History of the Muhammadan Dynasties of Asia, Including Hindustan; from A.H. 194 (810 A.D.) to A.H. 658 (1260 A.D.) and the Irruption of the Infidel Mughals into Islam. H. G. Raverty (ed. and trans.). New Delhi: Oriental Books Reprint Corp.; exclusively distributed by Munshiram Manoharlal.

Minorsky, V. (trans. and ed.). 1980 [1943]. Tadhkirat Al-Muluk: A Manual of Safavid Administration, Circa 1137/1725. Cambridge: Trustees of the E. J. Gibb Memorial, c/o Spicer and Pegler.

--- 1940. "The Turkish Dialect of the Khalaj." Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 10(1): 419–37.

-- 1937. Hudud al-Alam, "The Regions of the World"; A Persian Geography, 372 A.H.–982 A.D. London: Luzac & Co.

Mintz, Sidney. 1986 [1985]. Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. New York: Penguin Books.

Monsutti, Alessandro. 2005. War and Migration: Social Networks and Economic Strategies of the Hazaras of Afghanistan. New York: Routledge.

Morgenstierne, Georg. 1964. Indo-Iranica: Melanges Presentes a Georg Morgenstierne a L'occasion de son soixante-dixieme anniversaire. Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

--- 1960. "Khushal Khan—National Poet of the Afghans." Journal of the Royal Central Asian Society 47: 49–57.

--- 1939. "Notes on an Old Pashto Manuscript Containing the Khair ul-Bayan of Bayazid Ansari." New Indian Antiquary 2(8): 566–74.

Mushtaqi, Abd (Rizq) Allah. nd [1581]. Waqiat-i Mushataqi. Lucknow: Moti Mahal Library.

Nawid, Senzil K. 1999. Religious Response to Social Change in Afghanistan, 1919–1929: King Aman-Allah and the Afghan Ulama. Costa Mesa, Calif.: Mazda Publishers.

Nebenzahl, Kenneth. 2004. Mapping the Silk Road and Beyond: 2,000 Years of Exploring the East. London: Phaidon.

Nelson, Cynthia (ed.). 1973. The Desert and the Sown. Berkeley: Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley.

Nimat Allah. 1612. Tarikh-i Khan Jahani and abridgment Makhzan-i Afghan. Rampur: Rampur State Library Mss #374 and #381.

Niazi, Ghulam Sarwar Khan. 1990. The Life and Works of Sultan Alauddin Khalji. Lahore: Seraj Munir.

Noelle, Christine. 1997. State and Tribe in Nineteenth-Century Afghanistan: The Reign of Amir Dost Muhammad Khan (1826–1863). Richmond, Surrey: Curzon Press.

Norris, J. A. 1967. The First Afghan War, 1838–1942. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Norvell, Douglass, G. 1973. Men and Markets in Afghanistan. Kabul: U.S.A.I.D.

--- 1972. A Rural Bazaar in Afghanistan. Kabul: U.S.A.I.D.

Omrani, Bijan, and Matthew Leeming. 2005. Afghanistan: A Companion and Guide. Hong Kong: Odyssey Books & Guides.

Pastoral Production and Society: Proceedings of the International Meeting on Nomadic Pastoralism. 1979. Ed. L'Equipe Ecologie et Anthropologie des Societes Pastorales. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pedersen, Gorm, and Ida Nicolaisen. 1994. Afghan Nomads in Transition: A Century of Change Among the Zala Khān Khēl. London: Thames and Hudson.

Poullada, Leon B. 1973. Reform and Rebellion in Afghanistan, 1919–1929: King Amanullah's Failure to Modernize a Tribal Society. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press.

Pottinger, Henry. 1976 [1816]. Travels in Beloochistan and Sinde. Karachi: Indus Publications.

Priestly, Henry (trans.). 1981 [1871]. Afghanistan and Its Inhabitants: Translated from the "Hayat-i Afghan" of Muhammad Hayat Khan. Lahore: Sang-e-Meel.

Qandahari, Ali Muhammad. c. 1660. Hal Namah. Persian MS (final recension of Bayazid Ansari's Autobiography) Aligarh: Aligarh Muslim University, Maulana Azad Library, Subhanullah Collection, No. 920/37.

Qanungo, Kalika Ranjan. 1965. Sher Shah and His Times: An Old Story Retold by the Author after Decades from a Fresh Standpoint. Bombay: Orient Longmans.

Rahim, M. A. 1961. Afghans in India, A.D. 1545–1631, with Special Reference to their Relations with the Mughals. Karachi: Pakistan Publishing House.

Raverty, H. G. 1987 [1855]. A Grammar of the Puk'hto, Pus'hto, or Language of the Afghans. New Delhi: UBS Publishers.

--- 1982 [1860]. A Dictionary of the Pukhto, Pushto, or, Language of the Afghans: With Remarks on the Originality of the Language and Its Affinity to the Semitic and Other Oriental Tongues, Etc. Etc. Karachi: Indus Publications.

--- 1982 [1878]. Notes on Afghanistan and Parts of Balulchistan, 2 vols. Quetta: Nissa Traders.

--- 1981 [1867]. Selections from the Poetry of the Afghans: From the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Century, Literally Translated from the Original Pushto; with Notices of the Different Authors, and Remarks on the Mystic Doctrine and Poetry of the Sufis. Peshawar: De Chapzai.

--- 1978 [1880]. Selections from Pushto Poetry. Lahore: al-Biruni.

Richards, John. 1993. The Mughal Empire. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Robinson, J. A. 1980 [1934]. Notes on the Nomad Tribes of Eastern Afghanistan. Quetta: Nisa Traders.

Roy, Olivier. 1990 [1985]. Islam and Resistance in Afghanistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rubin, Barnett. 2006. Statement to the United States Congress, "Afghanistan: Is the Aid Getting Through?" Hearing before the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives 109th Congress, Second Session, March 9, 2006.

--- 2000. "The Political Economy of War and Peace in Afghanistan." World Development 28(10): 1789–1803.

--- 1996 [1995]. The Fragmentation of Afghanistan: State Formation and Collapse in the International System. Lahore: Vanguard Books Pvt. Ltd.

Sahlins, Marshal. 1994. "Cosmologies of Capitalism: The Trans-Pacific Sector of the 'World System.'" In Nicholas B. Dirks, Geoff Eley, and Sherry B. Ortner (eds.), Culture/Power/History: A Reader in Contemporary Social Theory. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Saikal, Amin. 2004. Modern Afghanistan: A History of Struggle and Survival. London and New York: I. B. Tauris.

Salzman, Philip Carl. 2000. "Hierarchical Image and Reality: The Construction of a Tribal Chiefship." Comparative Studies in Society and History 42(1): 49–66.

--- 1980. "Introduction: Processes of Sedentarization as Adaptation and Response." In Philip Carl Salzman (ed.), When Nomads Settle: Processes of Sedentarization as Adaptation and Response. New York: J. F. Bergin Publishers, Inc.

Sarwani, Abbas. 1964 [1579]. Tuhfah-i Akbar Shahi or Tarikh-i Sher Shahi. S.M. Imam aI-Din (trans.). Dacca: University of Dacca.

Schinasi, May. 1980. The Afghans in Australia (occasional paper #22). New York: Afghanistan Council of the Asia Society.

--- 1979. Afghanistan at the Beginning of the Twentieth Century: Nationalism and Journalism in Afghanistan: A Study of Seraj Ul-Akhbar (1911–1918). Naples: Istituto Universitario Orientale.

Singh, Ganda. 1981 [1959]. Ahmad Shah Durrani: Father of Modern Afghanistan. Lahore: Tariq Publications.

Stoler, Ann Laura, and Fredrick Cooper (eds). 1997. "Between Metropole and Colony: Rethinking a Research Agenda." In Fredrick Cooper and Ann Laura Stoler (eds.), Tensions of Empire: Colonial Cultures in a Bourgeois World. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Subrahmanyam, Sanjay. 1995. "Of Imarat and Tijarat: Asian Merchants and State Power in the Western Indian Ocean, 1400 to 1750." Comparative Studies in Society and History 37(4): 750–80.

--- 1992. "Iranians Abroad: Intra-Asian Elite Migration and Early Modern State Formation." Journal of Asian Studies 51(2): 340–63.

Subrahmanyam, Sanjay (ed.) 1990. Merchants, Markets and the State in Early Modern India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Subrahmanyam, Sanjay, and Bayly, C. A. 1990. "Portfolio capitalists and the political economy of early modern India." In Subrahmanyam (ed.)

Szabo, Albert, and Thomas J. Barfield. 1991. Afghanistan: An Atlas of Indigenous Domestic Architecture. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Tapper, Richard. 1990. "Anthropologists, Historians, and Tribespeople on Tribe and State Formation in the Middle East." In Philip S. Khoury and Joseph Kostiner (eds.), Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East. Berkeley: University of California Press

--- 1983. "Introduction." In Richard Tapper (ed.), The Conflict of Tribe and State in Iran and Afghanistan. London: Croom Helm Ltd.

Thornton, Ernest, and Annie Thornton. 1910. Leaves from an Afghan Scrapbook: The Experiences of an English Official and his Wife in Kabul. London: John Murray.

Tilly, Charles. 1992 [1990]. Coercion, Capital, and European States, A. D. 990–1992. Cambridge, Mass.: Blackwell.

Trautmann, Thomas, R. 1998. "The Lives of Sir William Jones." In Alexander Murray (ed.), Sir William Jones 1746–1794: A Commemoration. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

--- 1995. "Indian Time, European Time." Time-Histories and Ethnologies. Diane Owen Hughes and Thomas R. Trautmann (eds.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

United States 83rd Congress, 2d session. 1954. Obtaining Financial Aid for a Development Plan: The Export-Import Bank of Washington Loan to Afghanistan. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Press.

al-Utbi, Muhammad b. Abd al-Jabbar. 1955 [c. 1056]. Tarikh-i Yamini. Tehran: Muhammad Ali Fardin.

Varahamihira. 1987 [c. 550]. Brhat Samita. N.C. Iyer (trans.). Delhi: Sri Sataguru Publications.

Vigne, G. T. 1986 [1840]. A Personal Narrative of a Visit to Ghuzni, Kabul, and Afghanistan. New Delhi: Gian Publishing House.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. 1976 [1974]. The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. New York: Academic Press.

Warburton, R. 1880. Report on the District of Lughman, Chiefly in Regard to Revenue. Simla: Government Central Branch Press.

Waqiat-i Shah Shuja. 1954. Herati, Muhammad Husain (ed. [parts I and II from Shuja, part III from Herati]. Kabul: Afghan Historical Society.

Whitfield, Susan. 2004a. Aurel Stein on the Silk Road. Chicago: Serindia Publications.

--- 2004b. The Silk Road: Trade, Travel, War and Faith. London: British Library.

--- 1999. Life along the Silk Road. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Whitney, John W. 2006. Geology, Water, and Wind in the Lower Helmand Basin, southern Afghanistan. Prepared under the auspices of the U.S. Agency for International Development. Scientific Investigations Report 2006-5182. U.S. Department of Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.

Winichakul, Thongchai. 1994. Siam Mapped: A History of the Geo-Body of a Nation. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

--- 1996. "Maps and the Formation of the Geobody of Siam." In Stein Tonnesson and Hans Antloev (eds.), Asian Forms of the Nation. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon.

Wolf, Eric. 1982. Europe and the People without History. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Wolpert, Stanley. 1993 [1977]. A New History of India. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press.

Wood, John. 1872. A Journey to the Source of the River Oxus. Alexander Wood (ed.). London: John Murray.

Yang, Anand A. 1998. Bazaar India: Markets, Society, and the Colonial State in Gangetic Bihar. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Yapp, M.E. 1980. "Part III: The Afghan System" In Strategies of British India: Iran and Afghanistan, 1798-1950. Malcom Yapp. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Web Sites (PDF) (PDF)