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While working on this book, I have incurred numerous debts, which I am pleased to acknowledge here. First, I would like to thank my wife, Minhui, who has been an endless well of support and patience through the years. Though most of the book was written by the time my son came along, William's cheerful demeanor helped immeasurably during the final stages of revision (though he does not yet comprehend the morale boost he provided!). I owe a similar debt of gratitude to my parents, Richard and Betsy Haddad, and to my brother and his wife, Rich and Sandy Haddad. My in-laws in China all wished me well from afar; thank you, Wang Qingyi and Yang Xiurong. I would also like to thank Daniel Medwed, a good friend who kept my spirits high and who certainly feels like family.


Next, I would like to single out the contribution of my dissertation adviser, William H. Goetzmann. Whether it was reading a chapter for the third time, recommending a seemingly obscure book that turned out to be pivotal, or offering encouragement over lunch, Dr. Goetzmann showed a boundless generosity with his time and intellect without which this dissertation would not have been possible. Dr. Goetzmann, I appreciate all that you have taught me over the years. I would also like to thank the other members of the dissertation committee, each of whom contributed in an important way. Edward Rhoads provided invaluable assistance, both by reading chapters and by helping me grasp Chinese history. Mark Smith provided excellent advice in structuring the work. Janet Davis generously offered her expertise in popular culture, as did John Park in the field of Asian American Studies.

Turning a doctoral dissertation into a book posed a new and daunting challenge. This effort was aided greatly by the American Historical Association, which, in conjunction with Columbia University Press, awarded me the Gutenberg-e award in 2002. To say that this award put wind in my sails would be an egregious understatement. All of a sudden, I became welcome in a true community of history scholars and publishing professionals; this group provided the intellectual, financial, editorial, and moral support necessary to complete a project begun in graduate school. Here I would like to give special mention to Nicholas Frankovich, who brought tremendous care, thoughtfulness, and precision to his job as copy editor.

Since this dissertation required substantial archival research, I was fortunate enough to receive fellowships from three institutions, the University of Texas, Winterthur Library, and the McNeil Center for Early American History. I also owe a debt to all of the archivists and research librarians at the following institutions who took an interest in my project and brought countless sources to my attention: Winterthur Library, the Peabody Essex Museum, the Department of Anthropology at the American Museum of Natural History, the New York Public Library, the New-York Historical Society, the Cooper-Hewitt Museum, the various reading rooms at the Library of Congress, the Manuscripts and Archives department at Yale University, the Smithsonian Museum of American History, the Library Company of Philadelphia, the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, the Free Library of Philadelphia, the Chester County Historical Society, and the Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas at Austin. I would also like to extend my gratitude to Susan Roeckle and the other wonderful people of the Inter Library Loan Office at the University of Texas who

Finally, I would like to thank friends, colleagues, and staff at Penn State Harrisburg — in particular Charlie Kupfer, Simon Bronner, Michael Barton, Catherine Rios, Sue Etter, and Cindy Leach — who have provided good advice, good coaching, and (most importantly) good humor!


The Romance of China: Excursions to China in U.S. Culture: 1776-1876



1. Xanadu
2. Romantic Domesticity
3. The China Effect
4. China in Miniature
5. Floating Ethnology
6. God's China
7. Fruits of Diplomacy
8. Bayard Taylor's Asia
9. Exposition of 1876